Table of Contents | Genet. Mol. Res. 2017 (4)
Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spr.) is an important vegetable crop. However, genetic and breeding studies of the species have been restricted by the lack of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). In the present study, a total of 2553 Chinese chive SSRs were developed from the species’ transcriptome, with 626, 643, and 536 of the makers located in coding sequences, 5' untranslated regions and 3' untranslated region, respectively. The annotation of SSR-containing expressed sequence tags revealed that the transcripts were enriched for several Gene Ontology (GO) categories, including ‘protein binding’, ‘regulation of transcription’, and ‘integral to membrane’. Among the 2,553 SSRs, di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant (52.3 and 45.6%, respectively), and AC/GT and GAA/TTC were the most frequent di- and tri-nucleotide motifs, respectively. PCR amplification, using 100 SSR primer pairs, revealed that 94% of the markers were of good quality and that 83-88 of the makers could be amplified in six other Allium species. This suggests that the markers had high cross-species transferability. The substantial number of SSRs developed will provide a valuable resource for future genetic and breeding studies in Chinese chive
The yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula Boddaert 1785) is a medium-sized carnivore and a top predator in South Korea that is distributed throughout Western and Southeast Asia and Siberia in a wide range of habitats. In this study, we developed a panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers for M. flavigula by Illumina next-generation sequencing for investigation of population genetics. A total of 887 candidate microsatellite markers were identified and characterized from genomic sequences. By testing the markers in three individuals, we found 73 satisfactory microsatellite loci consisting of tri- or tetranucleotide repeats. We designed four multiplex panels of 33 microsatellite loci and applied them to 35 individuals from South Korea. The number of alleles and polymorphism information content per locus varied from 2 to 9 and from 0.164 to 0.841, respectively. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.143 (MF233) to 0.800 (MF339) and from 0.183 (MF233) to 0.871 (MF327) respectively. Nine of the 33 loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also found that at least 10 of the loci were transferrable to two other species of Mustelidae (Meles and Mustela sibirica). These markers can be applied to studies of genetic variation and population structure and can be useful for ex situ conservation and ecological monitoring by non-invasive sampling of M. flavigula populations.
It was considered processes transmutation of genome mechanism from the point of view of thermodynamics, biophysics, and biochemistry. Just it was explained mechanisms maintenance stability Internal Energy of Stationary State an able-bodied organism according first law of thermodynamics. Besides it was considered some negative influences on an organism of solar radiation causing germination viruses. Hence it was described mechanisms normal development of an organism reflecting activity of cellular genomes via generating cellular divisions. The links between genomic mechanisms and mechanisms maintenance stability Internal Energy of an organism and cells of an organism exert activity stem cells which induce cells types division in healthy tissues. The local violation these links due to viral affection causes local tissue transitions normal genomic cycle into genomic cycle of benign neoplasm, i.e., the transition of genomic link due to viral affection of cellular genomic link leading to forming benign neoplasm. The mechanism of these transformations in cellular genome was described from point of views of thermodynamics, biophysics, and biochemistry. Also, it was elucidated the cause that genomic mechanism of benign neoplasm don’t break Stationary State of an organism. Furthermore, it was described the viral affecting genomic link of cells in benign neoplasm causing mechanism transmutation benign neoplasm into cancer with forming Warburg effect mechanism. The forming cancer metabolism creates Quasi-Stationary State of cancer disease organism
Clinical mastitis cows normally produce clotted milk, thus the much higher somatic cells in milk are unable to be counted by routine FOSS machine. The proteins coded by CD4 and LAG-3 genes can bind to MHC class II molecules and play important roles in in-flammatory diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine CD4 and LAG-3 genes on the somatic cell counts (SCCs) of clinical mastitis Holstein cows. For the first time, we detected SCCs in the clinical mastitis cows’ milk by Newman’s staining combined with microscope assays. Our association results showed that two novel SNPs (T104010752C and C104028410T) identified in bovine CD4 and LAG-3 genes respectively were significantly associated with SCCs of clinical mastitis cows (P<0.05). In addition, the combined genotypic effect of both the SNPs was also significant on SCCs (P<0.05). The results imply that the novel SNPs in CD4 and LAG-3 genes could be significant candidate markers against Clinical mastitis in Holstein cattle.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of high temperatures on ear fertility, yield components and protein content of wheat cultivars. Therefore, 96 genotypes were subjected to two environments in a greenhouse: control and heat stress. Each environment had two replicates, totalling 192 plots. The evaluations were: number of ear per plant, number of ear per pot, ear weight, number of grains per ear, number of sterile spikelet’s, number of viable grains, grain weight and protein content. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic and phenotypic correlations were performed. The results showed a significant drop in productivity of the genotypes subjected to heat stress as well as significant increase in the number of sterile spikelet’s. The PCA allowed the selection of nine promising genotypes for cultivation in environments with high temperatures with basis on these traits, especially the cultivars CD 104, CD 122 and TBIO Itaipu.