The androgen receptor (AR) is a protein encoded by the AR gene, which when mutated may affect spermatogenesis, the process in which spermatozoa are produced; thus, AR mutations could lead to male infertility. We examined exon 1 of the AR gene in men with idiopathic infertility. Blood or semen samples from 111 infertile, oligozoospermic (N = 31), asthenozoospermic (N = 23), teratozoospermic (N = 33), and azoospermic (N = 24) men were analyzed. The extracted DNA was amplified for the exon 1 region of the AR gene.
We studied the karyotype, spermatogenesis and nucleolar activity at spermatogenesis in five species of Heteropera: Hyalymenus sp and Neomegalotomus pallescens, Alydidae; Catorhintha guttula and Hypselonotus fulvus, Coreidae; and Niesthrea sidae, Rhopalidae. They showed a red (Alydidae) or orange (Coreidae and Rhopalidae) membrane covering the testes, which consisted of seven testicular lobes, except in N. pallescens, which had only five.