Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Brazil are tolerant of infestations with the exotic ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), while the European honey bees used in apiculture throughout most of the world are severely affected. Africanized honey bees are normally kept in hives with both naturally built small width brood cells and with brood cells made from European-sized foundation, yet we know that comb cell size has an effect on varroa reproductive behavior.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium commonly found in aquatic habitats of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This bacterium is able to produce a large variety of products of biotechnological and pharmacological use. Although C. violaceum is considered to be non-pathogenic, some cases of severe infections in humans and other animals have been reported. Genomic data on the type strain ATCC 12472T has provided a comprehensive basis for detailed studies of pathogenicity, virulence and drug resistance genes.
Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are important pathogens affecting vegetable crop production in Brazil and worldwide. The pepper species Capsicum annuum includes both hot and sweet peppers; very little emphasis has been placed on breeding sweet peppers for nematode resistance. We report on the inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne. The hot pepper cv. Carolina Cayenne was used as seed parent and the sweet pepper cv.
Resistance to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. would be a valuable attribute of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. cultivars grown in tropical regions. The looseleaf lettuce ‘Grand Rapids’ is resistant to both M. incognita and M. javanica. Resistance to M. incognita has a high heritability, under the control of a single gene locus, in which the ‘Grand Rapids’ allele, responsible for resistance (Me), has predominantly additive gene action, and has incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.