Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is dependent on the energy requirements of tissues. To date, no comprehensive study has been conducted to examine mtDNA copy number variations in pigs. In the current study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the mtDNA copy number in 15 pig tissue types at 5 growth stages from embryo to adult. Observable differences in mtDNA content were detected in the tissues, including a 6-fold greater mtDNA content in the heart compared with the lung of 180-day-old samples.
Parentage analysis and individual identification are recent, promising methods that have been applied to evolutionary and ecological studies, as well as conservation management. Parental exclusion relying on polymorphic microsatellites has been used worldwide in parentage determination, while the low mutation rate and genotyping error rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) make them another important marker for pedigree tracing. Here, we compared the effectiveness of microsatellites and SNP markers in European pigs.
Glucose transporter proteins 2 and 4 (GLUT2 and GLUT4) play important roles in glucose transport and energy metabolism. Changes in the levels of GLUT2 and GLUT4 mRNA were measured in longissimus dorsi muscle from the lean Yorkshire and fat Tibetan pig breeds at six different time points (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months) with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The results showed that GLUT2 and GLUT4 mRNA were abundantly expressed in the longissimus dorsi muscle and that the developmental expression patterns were similar in both breeds.
The phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) gene was differentially expressed in tissues of Chinese Meishan and Large White pigs. In this study, the promoter region, expression profile, and genetic mutations of the gene were determined. Expression of a 5'-deletion in both C2C12 and PK-15 cells showed that a negative regulatory element was at -1871 to +185 bp and a positive regulatory element was at -1158 to +185 bp. Among the different types of muscle fibers, PGM1 had the highest expression in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris.
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for disease-resistance breeding. We evaluated whether polymorphisms in exons 4 and 10 of the BPI gene are associated with immune indices [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, interferon-b (IFN-b), IL-10, and IL-12]. In this study, we identified one mutation (C522T) in the BPI exon 4 site and two mutations (A1060G and T1151G) in the BPI exon 10 site.
In this study, we evaluated the effect and possible mechanism of action of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on pig body fat deposition. Landrace piglets (N = 48) were randomly divided into three groups, which were fed diets containing 0% (control), 1%, or 2% CLA. Dorsal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the expression of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and associated microRNAs (miRNAs).
The function of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 gene (UGP2) in pig is not clear. In the present study, we used RNA isolated from Large White pigs and Chinese indigenous MeiShan pigs to examine the temporal coordination of changes in gene expression within muscle tissues. We cloned both the complete genomic DNA sequence and 2077-bp 5ꞌ-flanking sequence of porcine UGP2, to determine the genomic sequence. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that UGP2 was highly expressed in liver and skeletal muscle of MeiShan pigs.
RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) gene is a crucial gene of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and plays an important role in reproduction regulation. This study aimed to clone and characterize the pig RFRP gene. We obtained a 645-bp cDNA of pig RFRP gene comprising a 546-bp open reading frame, which encoded a peptide of 188 amino acids. The pig RFRP coding sequences have the identities of 81, 68.8, and 76.1% with their counterparts in humans, mice, and rats, respectively.
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transports peptides from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum for subsequent loading onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This study showed the dynamic changes in the TAP1 expression level in newborn to weaning piglets.
The Alpha subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (GNAS) is a complex imprinted gene. The major product of the GNAS gene is the α-subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gas), which plays a key role in multiple signal transduction pathways. Gas is required for the production of the receptor-stimulated intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It has been demonstrated that an increase in the concentration of the intracellular second messenger cAMP promotes apoptosis in different tumor entities.