Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b0,+ and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the heterosis effects on weaning weight at 205 days (WW, n = 146,464), yearling weight at 390 days (YW, n = 69,315) and weight gain from weaning to yearling (WG, n = 59,307) in composite beef cattle. The fixed models were: RM, which included contemporary groups, class of age of dam, outcrossing percentages for direct and maternal effects, and additive direct and maternal (AM) breed effects; R, RM model, minus AM breed effects, and H, RM model, minus additive breed effects. The estimates for W205 were in general positive (P 0.01).