c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals.
Interleukin 18 (IL-18), as a member of IL-1 superfamily, is an important pleiotropic cytokine that modulates Th1 immune responses. In this report, we cloned and identified a homolog of IL-18 in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (designated as AmIL-18) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The open readin g frame of AmIL-18 cDNA is 579 bp encoding a deduced protein of 192 amino acids. AmIL-18 gDNA fragments contained 5 exons and 4 introns.
The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is economically important in many parts of the world, including Thailand. Shrimp immunity is similar to that of other invertebrate organisms; it consists of an innate immunity system. Toll or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in recognizing the cleaved form of the cytokine Spätzle, which is processed by a series of proteolytic cascades activated by secreted recognition molecules. We isolated a full-length Toll receptor from P. monodon.
The rDNA genes coding for ribosomal RNA in animals are complicated repeat sequences with high GC content. We amplified water buffalo rDNA gene sequences with the long and accurate (LA) PCR method, using LA Taq DNA polymerase and GC buffer, based on bioinformatic analysis of related organisms. The rDNA genes were found to consist of 9016 nucleotides, including three rRNA genes and two internal transcribed spacers (ITS), which we named 18S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 28S rRNA.
Ginkgolides are key pharmaceutical components in Ginkgo biloba leaves. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (GbDXS) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GbGGPPS) genes are critical genes involved in ginkgolide biosynthesis. In this study, the promoters of GbDXS and GGPPS, with 676 and 570 bp in length, respectively, were cloned by chromosome walking. The cis-elements of GbDXS and GbGGPPS promoters were predicted and analyzed by the plant cis-acting regulatory element (CARE) database.
The cDNA encoding noggin2 protein was obtained from the brain and spinal cord cDNA library of Gekko japonicus. The size of the noggin2 transcript and its expression in different tissues were analyzed by Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization revealed positive hybridization signals in both gray and white matter of the spinal cord. Changes in noggin2 expression in the spinal cord after tail amputation were examined by real-time PCR.
The QM-like gene encodes a ribosomal protein L10. Besides housekeeping roles in protein synthesis, QM-like proteins have multiple extraribosomal functions during cell growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis. We obtained the full-length cDNA of QM-like protein (designated as SoQM) from the salt water game fish Sciaenops ocellatus, using RACE-PCR. The sequence consists of 740 bp, encoding 215-amino acid residues with 24.60 kDa.