Hygienic behavior

Assessing hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera unicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the endemic honey bee from Madagascar

H. Rasolofoarivao, Delatte, H., Ravaomanarivo, L. H. Raveloson, Reynaud, B., and Clémencet, J., Assessing hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera unicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the endemic honey bee from Madagascar, vol. 14, pp. 5879-5889, 2015.

Hygienic behavior (HB) is one of the natural mechanisms of honey bee for limiting the spread of brood diseases and Varroa destructor parasitic mite. Objective of our study was to measure HB of Apis mellifera unicolor colonies (N = 403) from three geographic regions (one infested and two free of V. destructor) in Madagascar. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB. Responses were measured from 3 h 30 min to 7 h after perforation of the cells. Colonies were very effective in detecting perforated cells.

Sequential hygienic behavior in Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica)

K. P. Gramacho and Gonçalves, L. S., Sequential hygienic behavior in Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica), vol. 8, pp. 655-663, 2009.

We examined the sequence, order or steps of hygienic behavior (HB) from pin-killed pupae until the removal of them by the bees. We conducted our study with four colonies of Apis mellifera carnica in Germany and made four repetitions. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB of bees. The data were collected every 2 h after perforation, totaling 13 observations. Additionally, for one hygienic colony and another non-hygienic colony, individual analyses of each dead pupa were made at every observation, including all details, steps or sequences of HB.

Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini)

L. M. Medina, Hart, A. G., and Ratnieks, F. L. W., Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini), vol. 8, pp. 571-576, 2009.

Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both species detected and removed dead brood. However, removal rates differed between species. In M.

Hygienic behavior of the stingless bee Plebeia remota (Holmberg, 1903) (Apidae, Meliponini)

P. Nunes-Silva, Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L., and Gonçalves, L. S., Hygienic behavior of the stingless bee Plebeia remota (Holmberg, 1903) (Apidae, Meliponini), vol. 8, pp. 649-654, 2009.

We investigated hygienic behavior in 10 colonies of Plebeia remota, using the pin-killed method. After 24 h the bees had removed a mean of 69.6% of the dead brood. After 48 h, the bees had removed a mean of 96.4% of the dead brood. No significant correlation was found between the size of the brood comb and the number of dead pupae removed, and there was no apparent effect of the origin and the condition of the colony on the hygienic behavior of the bees.

Comparative study of the hygienic behavior of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees directed towards grouped versus isolated dead brood cells

K. P. Gramacho and Gonçalves, L. S., Comparative study of the hygienic behavior of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees directed towards grouped versus isolated dead brood cells, vol. 8, pp. 744-750, 2009.

In Apis mellifera, hygienic behavior involves recognition and removal of sick, damaged or dead brood from capped cells. We investigated whether bees react in the same way to grouped versus isolated damaged capped brood cells. Three colonies of wild-type Africanized honey bees and three colonies of Carniolan honey bees were used for this investigation. Capped worker brood cells aged 12 to 14 days old were perforated with the pin-killing method.

Africanized honey bees are efficient at detecting, uncapping and removing dead brood

M. M. Morais, Francoy, T. M., Pereira, R. A., De Jong, D., and Gonçalves, L. S., Africanized honey bees are efficient at detecting, uncapping and removing dead brood, vol. 8, pp. 718-724, 2009.

The hygienic behavior of honey bees is based on a two-step process, including uncapping and removing diseased, dead, damaged, or parasitized brood inside the cell. We evaluated during periods of 1 h the time that hygienic and non-hygienic colonies of Africanized honey bees spend to detect, uncap and remove pin-killed brood using comb inserts with transparent walls placed in observation hives. We observed that hygienic colonies are significantly faster in detecting, uncapping and removing dead brood in the cells (P 0.001).

Evaluation of the time of uncapping and removing dead brood from cells by hygienic and non-hygienic honey bees

M. Alejandra Palacio, Flores, J. Manuel, Figini, E., Ruffinengo, S., Escande, A., Bedascarrasbure, E., Rodriguez, E., and Gonçalves, L. Segui, Evaluation of the time of uncapping and removing dead brood from cells by hygienic and non-hygienic honey bees, vol. 4, pp. 105-114, 2005.

Most research on hygienic behavior has recorded the time taken by the colony to remove an experimental amount of dead brood, usually after one or two days. We evaluated the time that hygienic (H) and non-hygienic (NH) honey bees take to uncap and remove dead brood in observation hives after the brood was killed using the pin-killing assay. Four experimental colonies were selected as the extreme cases among 108 original colonies. Thirty brood cells were perforated with a pin in two H and two NH colonies and observations were made after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 h.

Is the number of antennal plate organs (sensilla placodea) greater in hygienic than in non-hygienic Africanized honey bees?

K. Peres Gramacho, Gonçalves, L. Segui, Stort, A. Carlos, and Noronha, A. Backx, Is the number of antennal plate organs (sensilla placodea) greater in hygienic than in non-hygienic Africanized honey bees?, vol. 2, pp. 309-316, 2003.

Hygienic behavior is a desirable trait in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as hygienic bees quickly remove diseased brood, interrupting the infectious cycle. Hygienic lines of honey bees appear to be more sensitive to the odors of dead and diseased honey bee brood, and Africanized honey bees are generally more hygienic than are European honey bees. We compared the number of sensilla placodea, antennal sensory structures involved in the perception of odor, in 10 bees from each of six hygienic and four non-hygienic colonies of Africanized honey bees.

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