High-level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates show rapid evolution of rifampicin resistance, forcing reliance upon expensive and often inferior antibiotics to manage these infections. Accordingly, this study was conducted to: 1) evaluate the level of multidrug resistance among hospital-associated MRSA isolates from Chennai, India; 2) determine their rifampicin resistance and molecular characterization; and 3) analyze the identified rpoB gene mutations for predominant high-level rifampicin resistance-associated nucleotide changes.
The aim of this study was to explore the genetic polymorphism, genotype, and haplotype characteristics of the KIR locus in the Xinjiang Han population in order to establish a foundation for future analysis of the relationship between KIR genes and disease. KIR genes were detected by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction in 184 randomly selected, healthy individuals from the Han population in Xinjiang, China. Standard genotype and haplotype analyses were conducted using Hsu’s standards classified for analysis.
We investigated the polymorphisms of PRLR and FOLR1 genes in Xinong Saanen, Guanzhong, and Boer goat breeds by DNA sequencing and PCR–RFLP. Two novel SNPs were identified: KC109741: g.62130C>T in the 3ꞌ-UTR of goat gene PRLR, and KC136296: g.7884A>C in exon 3 of goat gene FOLR1. In the three goat breeds, the polymorphism information content was 0.20-0.27 at the g.62130C>T locus. At the g.7884A>C locus, it was 0.36 in Boer goats.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases produced by a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae from chickens were detected with confirmatory phenotypic tests of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 18 antibacterial drugs against K. pneumoniae were determined by the 2-fold microdilution method. The genotype and subtype of the ESBL-producing and AmpC β-lactamase-producing K.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is a trait inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern; the associated phenotype varies considerably. This variation is mainly due to the considerable allelic heterogeneity in the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme locus. We examined the genotype-phenotype correlation in 54 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two systems were used. The first was a phenotype prediction system based on arbitrary values (AV) attributed to each mutation and the second was a correlation analysis.
The mite Varroa destructor is the main pest causing damage to apiculture worldwide. In Brazil and other parts of the world, where bees of African origin and their hybrids predominate, the bees can survive these mites without treatment. Studies have shown a correlation between the various genotypes of the mite and its fertility in different geographical regions. Information about mite genotype could be helpful in understanding the diverse effects and relationships of the mite with bees in different regions of the world.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays an important role in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair and DNA methylation. The two common functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C have been associated with several diseases, including cancer.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease throughout the world. The genome of this virus consists of approximately 10,000 bp and codes for 10 mature polypeptides. Genome sequence comparison has revealed the existence of six major genotypes and a large number of subtypes. The genotypes can be distinguished by whole genome or genome fragment sequencing, geno-type specific amplification of a genomic region or PCR amplification, followed by hybridization or restriction digestion, among other methods.