Genetic variability

Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

B. M. Silva, Rossi, A. A. B., Dardengo, J. F. E., Silva, C. R., Silva, I. V., Silva, M. L., and Silva, C. J., Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, vol. 14, pp. 10365-10375, 2015.

Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T.

Evaluation of microsatellite loci from libraries derived from the wild diploid 'Calcutta 4' and 'Ouro' banana cultivars

P. R. O. Silva, Jesus, O. N. J., Creste, S., Figueira, A., Amorim, E. P., and Ferreira, C. F., Evaluation of microsatellite loci from libraries derived from the wild diploid 'Calcutta 4' and 'Ouro' banana cultivars, vol. 14, pp. 11410-11428, 2015.

Microsatellite markers have been widely used in the quantification of genetic variability and for genetic breeding in Musa spp. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers derived from ‘Calcutta 4’ and ‘Ouro’ genomic libraries, and to analyze the genetic variability among 30 banana accessions. Thirty-eight markers were used: 15 from the ‘Ouro’ library and 23 from the ‘Calcutta 4’ library.

Phylogeny of Marmosops and the occurrence of Marmosops pinheiroi (Pine, 1981) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) in the Cerrado savanna of Maranhão, Brazil

D. C. Nascimento, Olímpio, A. P. M., Conceição, E., Campos, B. A. T. P., Fraga, E. C., and Barros, M. C., Phylogeny of Marmosops and the occurrence of Marmosops pinheiroi (Pine, 1981) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) in the Cerrado savanna of Maranhão, Brazil, vol. 14, pp. 304-313, 2015.

The present study reviews the phylogeny of the genus Marmosops and expands the geographic range of Marmosops pinheiroi to the Brazilian State of Maranhão. Five specimens of M. pinheiroi were collected from the Inhamum Municipal Environmental Protection Area in Caxias, Maranhão. Total DNA was extracted and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in an ABI PRISM 3500. Additional sequences of Marmosops were obtained from GenBank for specimens from southeastern and northeast Brazil and the northern Amazon Forest.

Diversity and genetic structure of mangaba remnants in states of northeastern Brazil

J. A. E. Amorim, Mata, L. R., Lédo, A. S., Azevedo, V. C. R., and Silva, A. V. C., Diversity and genetic structure of mangaba remnants in states of northeastern Brazil, vol. 14, pp. 823-833, 2015.

In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of remnants of mangaba populations in states of northeastern Brazil by applying 9 microsatellite markers previously developed to establish conservation strategies for germplasm and species preservation. Six to 20 individuals per population were analyzed, with a total of 94 individuals and 6 populations from the states of Ceará, Pernambuco, and Sergipe, Brazil. The intra-population positive fixation index (f) in all populations indicated inbreeding resulting from the lack of random mating.

Variability and inbreeding in semiexotic maize populations

A. S. Oliveira, Filho, J. B. Miranda, and Reis, E. F., Variability and inbreeding in semiexotic maize populations, vol. 14, pp. 1184-1199, 2015.

Three semiexotic populations (CRE-01, CRE-02, CRE-03) obtained by incorporation of exotic germplasm (lines from CIMMYT, Colombia; selected for resistance to corn stunt complex) were evaluated in two cycles of recurrent selection with half-sib families. In cycle-I, samples comprising 50, 70, and 50 half-sib families were evaluated at Jataí (GO) and traits analyzed were ear yield, plant height, and ear height. For yield (t/ha), populations means were 5.86, 6.19, and 5.31, representing approximately 73% of hybrid check.

Polymorphisms in the SIRT5 gene and their association with body measurement and ultrasound traits in Qinchuan cattle

L. S. Gui, Wang, H. C., Liu, G. Y., and Zan, L. S., Polymorphisms in the SIRT5 gene and their association with body measurement and ultrasound traits in Qinchuan cattle, vol. 14, pp. 3843-3853, 2015.

Silent information regulator 5 (SIRT5), a member of the Sirtuin family class III nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylases, plays an important role in metabolic and aging processes in mammals. We identified 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (G22010A, G22052A, G22119T, and G22245C) in the 3' untranslated regions of the SIRT5 gene from 572 Qinchuan cattle by sequencing and investigating their association with growth and ultrasound traits. The frequencies of genotype GG and allele G were high at the 4 SNPs.

Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations

S. Schlottfeldt, Walter, M. E. M. T., Carvalho, A. C. P. L. F., Soares, T. N., Telles, M. P. C., Loyola, R. D., and Diniz-Filho, J. A. F., Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations, vol. 14, pp. 6744-6761, 2015.

Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach.

Genetic structure and diversity in the Dioscorea cayenensis/D. rotundata complex revealed by morphological and isozyme markers

E. A. Bressan, T. Neto, B., Zucchi, M. I., Rabello, R. J., and Veasey, E. A., Genetic structure and diversity in the Dioscorea cayenensis/D. rotundata complex revealed by morphological and isozyme markers, vol. 13, pp. 425-437, 2014.

Of the 600 known yam species, only 10 are utilized as food, and the Dioscorea cayenensis/D. rotundata species complex is among the most cultivated. In Brazil, these species are commercially cultivated in the northeast region and are cultivated in the south and southeast regions as subsistence crops by traditional agriculturists. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 21 local varieties of D. cayenensis and 2 D.

Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae)

L. D. Giustina, Luz, L. N., Vieira, F. S., Rossi, F. S., Soares-Lopes, C. R. A., Pereira, T. N. S., and Rossi, A. A. B., Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae), vol. 13, pp. 3510-3519, 2014.

The genus Theobroma found in the Amazon region is composed of 22 species, including Theobroma speciosum, better known as cacauí. These species are constantly threatened by forest fragmentation caused by human activities and require conservation strategies and management aimed at preserving them in their natural environments. The main objective of this study was to analyze the population structure and genetic diversity within and between natural populations of T.

Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium

A. L. Guerra, Lima, A. V. B., Júnior, R. V. Lucato, Chiachio, M. C., Taddei, F. G., and Castiglioni, L., Genetic variability and phylogenetic aspects in species of the genus Macrobrachium, vol. 13, pp. 3646-3655, 2014.

The genus Macrobrachium includes prawns, which are widely distributed in lakes, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. This genus presents nearly 210 known species with great ecological and economic importance. However, few studies are related to the biology of these crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship between Macrobrachium amazonicum and Macrobrachium jelskii, which are closely related species.

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