The GAL4/UAS binary system has been widely used in Drosophila melanogaster for ectopic expression of transgenes in a tissue-specific manner. The GMR-GAL4 driver, which expresses the yeast transcription factor GAL4 under the control of glass multiple reporter (GMR) promoter elements, has been commonly utilized to express target transgenes, specifically in the developing eye.
The receptors for the immunosuppression drugs FK506 and rapamycin are called FKBPs (FK506-binding proteins). FKBPs comprise a large family; they are found in many species, including bacteria, fungi, animals, and plants. As a class of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase enzymes, the FKBP genes have been the focus of recent studies on plant stress tolerance and immunology. We identified and analyzed gene families encoding these proteins in maize using computational and molecular biology approaches.
Ethylene induces characteristic ripening reactions in climacteric fruits through its binding to histidine-kinase (HK) receptors, activating the expression of ripening genes. Ethylene receptors have been found in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) and some fruits; number and expression patterns differ among species. In mango, only ethylene receptor ETR1 was known. We cloned ERS1 cDNA from mango, and evaluated the expression of Mi-ERS1 and Mi-ETR1 by qPCR in developmental and ripening stages of this fruit.
Genetic and epigenetic factors affecting DNA methylation and gene expression are known to be involved in the development of colon cancer, but the full range of genetic alterations and many key genes involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer remain to be identified. NPRL2 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene identified in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region. We evaluated the role of this gene in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer by investigating NPRL2 mRNA expression in 55 matched normal and tumor colon tissue samples using quantitative RT-PCR analysis.
Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan are found in a wide variety of organisms. These versatile biopolymers are associated with a broad range of biological functions. This article is the first to report the potential functions of 2 chitin metabolic enzyme genes from Hyriopsis cumingii. A chitinase-3 gene (Chi-3) and a chitin deacetylase gene (Cda) were cloned from H. cumingii and characterized.
We investigated and described the kinetics of heat shock protein (Hsp) 110 expression and distribution in rat primary myocardial cells exposed to heat stress in vitro. After incubation at 37°C for 72 h, myocardial cells were heat stressed at 42°C for 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min. Significant increases in aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase enzymatic activities in the myocardial cell culture media were observed during heat stress, suggesting that the integrity of the myocardial cells was altered.
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 and 2 encoding genes (Nramp1 and Nramp2) are related to many diseases. We cloned the cDNA of chicken Nramp1 and Nramp2 genes, characterized their expression and polymorphisms, and investigated the association of some SNPs with resistance to salmonellosis. The Nramp1 cDNA was 1746 bp long and the Nramp2 cDNA was 1938 bp long. These cDNAs are similar to previously reported cDNAs, varying by two and one amino acids, respectively.
To determine the molecular basis of heterosis in goats, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to investigate myosin-regulatory light chain 2 (MRLC2) gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle tissues of the Tianfu goat and its parents, the Boer and Chengdu Ma goats. The goat MRLC2 gene was differentially expressed in the crossbreed, and the purebred mRNA were isolated and identified using fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR).
The mitochondrial ATP synthase, subunit c, isoform 3 gene (Atp5g3) encodes subunit 9, the subunit of the multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes ATP synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. According to the Ensembl database, Atp5g3 in mice is located on chromosome 2 between 73746504 and 73749383 bp, within the genomic regions of two sets of quantitative trait loci - alcohol preference and body weight. Both of those traits are more influenced by epigenetic factors than many other traits are.
We reviewed emerging evidence linking serum levels and adipose tissue expression of leptin and adiponectin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Previous data obtained by our group from a sample of overweight/obese PCOS women and a control sample of normal weight controls, both stratified by BMI, were reanalyzed. Circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were determined by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.