Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health.
We examined whether metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) promotes cell proliferation via DNA damage repair in ovarian cancer. MTA1 was successfully down-regulated using small interfering RNA in the epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3. Cell growth was evaluated through MTT and colony formation assays. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to evaluate the distribution of cells in the cell cycle, and cytotoxicity assays were performed to study cell sensitivity to cisplatin.
Blocking aldehyde dehydrogenase with the drug disulfiram leads to an accumulation of intracellular acetaldehyde, which negatively affects the viability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutants of the yeast gene PSO2, which encodes a protein specific for repair of DNA interstrand cross-links, showed higher sensitivity to disulfiram compared to the wild type. This leads us to suggest that accumulated acetaldehyde induces DNA lesions, including highly deleterious interstrand cross-links.
Several polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene are thought to have significant effects on cancer risk. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His, APE1 Asp148Glu, and HOGG1 Ser326Cys with endometriosis risk. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP assays in 52 patients with endometriosis and 101 age-matched healthy controls.
DNA damage activates several mechanisms such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterotrimeric checkpoint clamp consisting of the Rad17, Mec3 and Ddc1 subunits is an early response factor to DNA damage and activates checkpoints. This complex is structurally similar to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which serves as a sliding clamp platform for DNA replication.
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) acts on a broad spectrum of large lesions, while base excision repair removes individual modified bases. Although both processes have been well studied in human cells, novel genes involved in these DNA repair pathways have been described. Using a heterologous complementation approach, we identified a fetal human cDNA that complemented two Escherichia coli mutants that are defective in 3-methyl adenine glycosylase and in three endonucleases, all of which are enzymes with important roles in base excision repair.
DNA replication, together with repair mechanisms and cell cycle control, are the most important cellular processes necessary to maintain correct transfer of genetic information to the progeny. These processes are well conserved throughout the Eukarya, and the genes that are involved provide essential information for understanding the life cycle of an organism. We used computational tools for data mining of genes involved in these processes in the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis.
The bacteria Escherichia coli has been widely employed in studies of eukaryotic DNA repair genes. Several eukaryotic genes have been cloned by functional complementation of mutant lineages of E. coli. We examined the similarities and differences among bacterial and eukaryotic DNA repair systems. Based on these data, we examined tools used for gene cloning and functional studies of DNA repair in eukaryotes, using this bacterial system as a model.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative β-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C.
The sensitivity responses of seven pso mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards the mutagens N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 1,2:7,8-diepoxyoctane (DEO), and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) further substantiated their allocation into two distinct groups: genes PSO1 (allelic to REV3), PSO2 (SNM1), PSO4 (PRP19), and PSO5 (RAD16) constitute one group in that they are involved in repair of damaged DNA or in RNA processing whereas genes PSO6 (ERG3) and PSO7 (COX11) are