Conservation

Population structure and genetic variation of the endangered species Elaeagnus mollis Diels (Elaeagnaceae)

J. M. Zhang and Zhang, F., Population structure and genetic variation of the endangered species Elaeagnus mollis Diels (Elaeagnaceae), vol. 14, pp. 5950-5957, 2015.

Elaeagnus mollis Diels is a group of shrubs and dwarf trees endemic to China and are endangered plants. However, the reason why these plants are endangered remains controversial. The current study aimed to explore the endangered status of E. mollis from a genetic perspective and to propose conservation strategies for this species. Using 16 polymorphic allozyme loci, the population genetic structure was investigated for three populations representing the taxa and variants.

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

Z. B. Li, Dai, G., Shangguan, J. B., Ning, Y. F., Li, Y. Y., Chen, R. B., Huang, Y. S., and Yuan, Y., Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra, vol. 14, pp. 6529-6532, 2015.

The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is an endangered species. In this study, nine new polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and tested in 30 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1200 to 0.7391 and from 0.2408 to 0.5983, respectively. No loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium af­ter a Bonferroni correction, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was found between pairs of loci.

Movement patterns and genetic diversity of wild and reintroduced common dormice, Muscardinus avellanarius

D. M. Naim, Telfer, S., Tatman, S., Bird, S., Kemp, S. J., and Watts, P. C., Movement patterns and genetic diversity of wild and reintroduced common dormice, Muscardinus avellanarius, vol. 13, pp. 167-181, 2014.

Movement is an important life history trait that can have an impact on local adaptation, and other evolutionary phenomena. We used a combination of nestbox survey data and genetic techniques (genotyping at 10 microsatellite loci) to quantify patterns of movement in common dormice Muscardinus avellanarius at two distinct sites in the UK: 1) Bontuchel (a natural population) and 2) Wych (captive-bred individuals that were reintroduced to this site), over three consecutive years (2006-2008).

A multi-farm assessment of Greek black pig genetic diversity using microsatellite molecular markers

S. Michailidou, Kalivas, A., Ganopoulos, I., Stea, E., Michailidis, G., Tsaftaris, A., and Argiriou, A., A multi-farm assessment of Greek black pig genetic diversity using microsatellite molecular markers, vol. 13, pp. 2752-2765, 2014.

Local breeds are important for the maintenance of genetic diversity and future food security. Nowadays, the worldwide distribution of pigs is dominated by a few breeds, tending towards a severe loss of pig biodiversity. Thus, it is critical to maintain distinct populations of pig breeds. The Greek black pig, a breed raised locally and known for the high quality of its meat for cured products, is the only traditional indigenous pig breed reared in Greece.

Polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Cervus unicolor (Cervidae) show inbreeding in a domesticated population of Taiwan Sambar deer

D. Y. Lin, Chiang, T. Y., Huang, C. C., Lin, H. D., Tzeng, S. J., Kang, S. R., Sung, H. M., and Wu, M. C., Polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Cervus unicolor (Cervidae) show inbreeding in a domesticated population of Taiwan Sambar deer, vol. 13, pp. 3967-3971, 2014.

Primers for eight microsatellites were developed; they successfully amplified DNA from 20 domesticated Formosan Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei). All loci were polymorphic, with 10-19 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity across loci and samples was 0.310, ranging from 0 to 0.750 at each locus. All loci but one, CU18, deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to excessive homozygosity in these domesticated broodstocks, reflecting inbreeding.

Multivariate analysis in a genetic divergence study of Psidium guajava

A. M. Nogueira, Ferreira, M. F. S., Guilhen, J. H. S., and Ferreira, A., Multivariate analysis in a genetic divergence study of Psidium guajava, vol. 13, pp. 10657-10668, 2014.

The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation.

Genetic variation in a wild population of the ‘sleep’ passion fruit (Passiflora setacea) based on molecular markers

C. B. M. Cerqueira-Silva, Santos, E. S. L., Conceição, L. D. H. C. S., Cardoso-Silva, C. B., Pereira, A. S., Oliveira, A. C., and Corrêa, R. X., Genetic variation in a wild population of the ‘sleep’ passion fruit (Passiflora setacea) based on molecular markers, vol. 11. pp. 731-738, 2012.

Little is known about the molecular genetic diversity of most Passiflora species. We used RAPD markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of 24 genotypes of the ‘sleep’ passion fruit (Passiflora setacea). Twelve primers generated 95 markers, 88% of which were polymorphic. The genetic distance estimated by the complement of the Dice index ranged from 0.29 (among accessions Ps-G1 and Ps-G13) to 0.69 (among accessions Ps-G21 and Ps-G23). Genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed considerable variability among genotypes. We conclude that P.

Isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for Pallas’ long-tongued bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae)

M. Oprea, Peixoto, F. P., Resende, L. V., Collevatti, R. G., and Telles, M. P. C., Isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for Pallas’ long-tongued bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae), vol. 11. pp. 3518-3521, 2012.

Glossophaga soricina is a widespread Neotropical nectarivorous bat. We characterized 10 microsatellite loci isolated from a shotgun genomic library. We analyzed tissues from wing membrane of 67 individuals collected from two populations of Central Brazil (Brasília and Alto Paraíso). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.015 to 0.666 and from 0.016 to 0.915, respectively.

Genetic diversity of endangered Polyporus umbellatus from China assessed using a sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique

Y. Zhang, Kang, Y., Qin, Y., Zhou, Z., Lei, M., and Guo, H., Genetic diversity of endangered Polyporus umbellatus from China assessed using a sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique, vol. 11. pp. 4121-4129, 2012.

Polyporus umbellatus (Pers.) Fries is an endangered medicinal fungus in China with in vivo anticancer activity, but its genetic information is lacking. Eight natural P. umbellatus strains collected from 7 provinces in China were subjected to sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers to estimate the level and pattern of genetic diversity. Forty-nine primer combinations generated 1219 highly reproducible and discernible loci, among which 1023 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphism varied from 35.71 to 96.30 with an average of 83.92.

Diversity and genetic structure among subpopulations of Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

M. F. Alves, Barroso, P. A. V., Ciampi, A. Y., Hoffmann, L. V., Azevedo, V. C. R., and Cavalcante, U., Diversity and genetic structure among subpopulations of Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae), vol. 12, pp. 597-609, 2013.

Gossypium mustelinum is the only cotton species native to Brazil; it is endemic to the semi-arid region of the northeast. The populations are found near perennial and semi-perennial sources of water, such as ponds or pools in intermittent streams. Problems with in situ conservation derive from human interference in its habitat, mainly because of excessive cattle grazing and deforestation. Establishing efficient strategies for in situ conservation requires knowledge of the genetic structure of the populations.

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