We studied the behavior of virgin queens of the stingless bee species Schwarziana quadripunctata, Paratrigona lineata and Tetragona clavipes, investigating internal nest activities, including the cell provisioning and oviposition process. We made direct observation of queen behavior, with the aid of video filming. Forty-four virgin queens of S. quadripunctata were observed; one was larger and more attractive than the others. Miniature queens were more abundant than normal-size queens; both were found in prison chambers.
We describe a case of a spontaneously established mixed colony of two species of stingless bees. The host colony of Scaptotrigona depilis, an aggressive bee that forms large colonies, was invaded by workers of Nannotrigona testaceicornis, a smaller bee that forms small colonies. The host colony and the invading species colony were maintained in next boxes about 1.5 m apart. The N. testaceicornis colony had been recently divided. Observations were made daily for 10 min, and every two weeks the colony was opened for observations within the nest.
A review of previous studies is presented on estimates of genetic parameters and responses to selection with traditional breeding approaches, on correlations between agonistic behavior and growth performance, and on theoretical frameworks for selection incorporating interactions among individuals and on practical methods for incorporating competition effects in breeding programs.
Drosophila ananassae has a unique status among Drosophila species because of certain peculiarities in its genetic behavior. The most unusual feature of this species is its relatively high frequency of spontaneous male recombination. The results of studies on non-sexual behavior, such as phototactic responses, eclosion rhythm, and preferences for oviposition and pupation sites, lead us to suggest that this behavior is under polygenic control, with a substantial amount of additive genetic variation. Sexual isolation has been reported in D.