Research Article

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09/30/2003
Africanized honey bee; Antennae; Flagellomere; Honey bee; Hygienic behavior; Plate organs; Sensilla placodea

Hygienic behavior is a desirable trait in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as hygienic bees quickly remove diseased brood, interrupting the infectious cycle. Hygienic lines of honey bees appear to be more sensitive to the odors of dead and diseased honey bee brood, and Africanized honey bees are generally more hygienic than are European honey bees. We compared the number of sensilla ... more

K.Peres Gramacho; L.Segui Gonçalves; A.Carlos Stort; A.Backx Noronha
03/31/2005
Apis mellifera; Honey bees; Hygienic behavior; Removing; Uncapping

Most research on hygienic behavior has recorded the time taken by the colony to remove an experimental amount of dead brood, usually after one or two days. We evaluated the time that hygienic (H) and non-hygienic (NH) honey bees take to uncap and remove dead brood in observation hives after the brood was killed using the pin-killing assay. Four experimental colonies were selected as ... more

M.Alejandra Palacio; J.Manuel Flores; E. Figini; S. Ruffinengo; A. Escande; E. Bedascarrasbure; E. Rodriguez; L.Segui Gonçalves
06/30/2009
Africanized honey bees; Apis mellifera; body fluid; Carniolan honey bees; Hygienic behavior; pin-killing method

In Apis mellifera, hygienic behavior involves recognition and removal of sick, damaged or dead brood from capped cells. We investigated whether bees react in the same way to grouped versus isolated damaged capped brood cells. Three colonies of wild-type Africanized honey bees and three colonies of Carniolan honey bees were used for this investigation. Capped worker brood cells aged 12 ... more

K.P. Gramacho; L.S. Gonçalves
06/23/2009
Africanized honey bee; Apis mellifera; Hygienic behavior; Observation hives

The hygienic behavior of honey bees is based on a two-step process, including uncapping and removing diseased, dead, damaged, or parasitized brood inside the cell. We evaluated during periods of 1 h the time that hygienic and non-hygienic colonies of Africanized honey bees spend to detect, uncap and remove pin-killed brood using comb inserts with transparent walls placed in observation hives. ... more

M.M. Morais; T.M. Francoy; R.A. Pereira; D. De Jong; L.S. Gonçalves
06/09/2009
Apis mellifera carnica; Carniolan bees; Honey bees; Hygienic behavior; sequences of hygienic behavior

We examined the sequence, order or steps of hygienic behavior (HB) from pin-killed pupae until the removal of them by the bees. We conducted our study with four colonies of Apis mellifera carnica in Germany and made four repetitions. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB of bees. The data were collected every 2 h after perforation, totaling 13 observations. ... more

K.P. Gramacho; L.S. Gonçalves
05/19/2009
Hygienic behavior; Melipona beecheii; Meliponini; Scaptotrigona pectoralis; Stingless bees

Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both ... more

L.M. Medina; A.G. Hart; F.L.W. Ratnieks
06/02/2009
Hygienic behavior; Plebeia remota; Stingless bees

We investigated hygienic behavior in 10 colonies of Plebeia remota, using the pin-killed method. After 24 h the bees had removed a mean of 69.6% of the dead brood. After 48 h, the bees had removed a mean of 96.4% of the dead brood. No significant correlation was found between the size of the brood comb and the number of dead pupae removed, and there was no apparent effect of the ... more

P. Nunes-Silva; V.L. Imperatriz-Fonseca; L.S. Gonçalves
03/10/2003
Honey bee comb; Natural comb cell size; Reproduction; Resistance; Varroa destructor

Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Brazil are tolerant of infestations with the exotic ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), while the European honey bees used in apiculture throughout most of the world are severely affected. Africanized honey bees are normally kept in hives with both naturally built small width ... more

G.A. Piccirillo; D. De Jong
08/09/2005
Apis mellifera; Evolution of parasite-host relations; Integumental wounds; Multiple brood infestation; Pathogen invasion; Varroa destructor

The ectoparasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor, is highly adapted to its natural and adopted honey bee hosts, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Adult females perforate the integument of bee pupae in such a way that they and their progeny can feed. We examined the wounds that founder females made, and usually found one, and rarely up to three, integumental wounds ... more

G. Kanbar; W. Engels
02/23/2010
Genotype; RAPD; Resistance; Varroa destructor

The mite Varroa destructor is the main pest causing damage to apiculture worldwide. In Brazil and other parts of the world, where bees of African origin and their hybrids predominate, the bees can survive these mites without treatment. Studies have shown a correlation between the various genotypes of the mite and its fertility in different geographical regions. Information about ... more

J.C.V. Guerra; M.R.C. Issa; F.E. Carneiro; R. Strapazzon; G. Moretto

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