The aim of this study is to use Y-chromosome gene polymorphism method to investigate regional differences in genetic variation and population evolution history of the Chinese native cattle breeds. Six Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (UMN0929, UMN0108, UMN0920, INRA124, UMN2404, and UMN0103) were analyzed using 1016 healthy and heterogenetic males and 90 females of 9 native cattle breeds (Qinchuan, Jinnan, Zaosheng, Luxi, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Dabieshan, Yanbian, and Menggu) in China.
Of all DNA markers on the human Y-chromosome, the tetra-local Y-linked microsatellite DYS464 is the most polymorphic. We genotyped DYS464 in 677 male samples collected worldwide, maintained in the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel. Fourteen different alleles were found, with allele lengths varying from 9 to 23 repeats. One hundred and seventy-five different genotypes were detected, of which 90 appeared to be continent-specific. The region with the highest percentage of unique genotypes was Africa.