Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine is a complex multifactorial disease. Patients with OPLL commonly present with symptoms in their 40s or 50s. The genetic basis of OPLL remains poorly understood. Exome capture combined with massively parallel DNA sequencing has been proposed as an efficient strategy to search for disease-causing genes of both monogenic and multigenic disorders. To identify candidate pathogenic genes associated with OPLL, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on two unrelated southern Chinese OPLL patients.