Low efficiency of somatic cell cloning by nuclear transfer has been associated with alterations of placental vascular architecture. Placental growth and function depend on the growth of blood vessels; VEGF-A and bFGF are the most important factors controlling neovascularization and vascular permeability in the placenta. We hypothesize that the VEGF-A and bFGF systems are disrupted in placentomes from cloned animals, contributing to the placental abnormalities that are common in these clones.
Vascular endothelial growth factor
Peritumoral brain edema is a common complication of meningiomas. It is believed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as an angiogenic factor, plays a vital role in edema formation. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a small integral membrane protein that regulates water in the normal brain. However, the expression of AQP4 and its relationship to VEGF in edematous meningiomas are not well known. We studied tumor specimens of 59 human supratentorial meningiomas.