Type 2 diabetes
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that a transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphism (rs7903146) is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, limited sample size and variance of ethnicity in the studies investigating this association have led to conflicting reports regarding its role. Therefore, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the association between the TCF7L2 polymorphism (rs7903146) and T2DM including published case-control studies in global populations.
We conducted a case-control study to investigate the role of three common polymorphisms (rs10754558, rs7512998, and rs12137901) of the gene NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Between May 2013 and May 2014, 385 patients with T2DM and 401 control subjects were enrolled in our study. Genotyping of the three NLRP3 polymorphisms of interest was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the triggers of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several studies have investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms in TLR4 and TLR2, but they have yielded limited results. We investigated whether non-missense genetic polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of TLR4 and TLR2 were related to T2DM in a southern Chinese population.
Insulin resistance is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interaction of insulin with the insulin receptor (IR) leads to both its auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the IR substrate (IRS) proteins, initiating the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. The metabolic effects of IRS are known to be mediated through pathways involving phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), which result in the activation of Akt signaling.
We investigated the proliferation and differentiation potential of human osteoblasts from a type 2 diabetic patient in vitro. Human osteoblasts were obtained from a healthy subject and a type 2 diabetic patient and were cultured in vitro using the tissue explant adherent method. Differences in cell morphology were observed under a phase contrast microscope.