The βs mutation is responsible for the most aggressive form of sickle cell disease, has a predominantly African origin, and arrived in Brazil through the slave trade. However, the Brazilian population is highly miscegenated, underscoring the importance of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for the identification of the genetic structure of a population.
Sickle cell disease
Sickle cell anemia is an affection that causes chronic inflammation, with consequences for vaso-occlusion, oxidative stress and cytokine production. Genetic polymorphisms in markers involved in this process can modulate the inflammatory response, including polymorphisms -308G/A of TNFA (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and -509C/T of TGFB1 (transforming growth factor beta 1), reported to increase TNF-α and TGF-β1 production, respectively.