Heterologous expression of Aspergillus niger endo-1,4-β-glucanase (ENG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested both with an episomal plasmid vector (YEGAp/eng1) and a yeast vector capable of integration into the HO locus of the S. cerevisiae chromosome (pHO-GAPDH-eng1-KanMX4-HO). In both cases, eng1 gene expression in yeast, with its native signal sequence for secretion, was under the control of the strong glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) promoter.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health.
DNA damage activates several mechanisms such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterotrimeric checkpoint clamp consisting of the Rad17, Mec3 and Ddc1 subunits is an early response factor to DNA damage and activates checkpoints. This complex is structurally similar to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which serves as a sliding clamp platform for DNA replication.
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a tetrameric protein complex, consisting of two large and two small subunits. The small subunits Y2 and Y4 form a heterodimer and are encoded by yeast genes RNR2 and RNR4, respectively. Loss of Y4 in yeast mutant rnr4Δ can be compensated for by up-regulated expression of Y2, and the formation of a small subunit Y2Y2 homodimer that allows for a partially functional RNR.
Gene regulatory networks, or simply gene networks (GNs), have shown to be a promising approach that the bioinformatics community has been developing for studying regulatory mechanisms in biological systems. GNs are built from the genome-wide high-throughput gene expression data that are often available from DNA microarray experiments. Conceptually, GNs are (un)directed graphs, where the nodes correspond to the genes and a link between a pair of genes denotes a regulatory interaction that occurs at transcriptional level.