FGD1 encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, specifically activates Rho GTPase cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42). Dysfunction of FGD1 causes Aarskog-Scott syndrome (MIM #305400), an X-linked disorder that may affect bone and intellectual development. However, the relationship between FGD1 and intellectual developmental disorders (IDD) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic association between the FGD1 polymorphism and IDD.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism
In this study, we examined the frequency of polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL) genes IL-1β-511 and IL-6-174 in patients with epilepsy as well as a control group in Kars, Turkey. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with epilepsy and 100 nonepileptic subjects as a control group were examined. Peripheral blood samples were acquired from patients and control subjects for DNA extraction. The target region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and digested using the restriction enzymes SfaNI and AvaI.
We determined the distribution of the Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as well as a control group in Northeastern Turkey. A total of 52 patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea in a sleep laboratory and 78 control subjects were examined. Peripheral blood samples were taken from patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by polysomnography. DNA was extracted from blood samples and amplified using polymerase chain reaction.
The CYP1A1 gene is related to the generation of secondary metabolites that are capable of inducing DNA damage. The CYP1A1m1 polymorphism has been examined in many studies, and is located in a region near loci that have been linked to glaucoma, including the locus GLC1I. As a result, this polymorphism has been related to several diseases that are influenced by exposure to xenobiotic as well as primary open-angle glaucoma.
A number of studies have pointed to the association of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa) with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these two genes are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in the Malay population. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms Val66Met of BDNF, -2036C>G and g.1238delG of DARPP-32 were genotyped in the Malay population in 200 patients with schizophrenia and 256 healthy controls.
Molecular components of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between DRD3 Ser9Gly and cathechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT, SNP = rs165656) polymorphisms and schizophrenia but the results were inconclusive. We investigated this apparent association between Ser9Gly (A/G) polymorphism and an intronic SNP (dbSNP or rs165656) in 261 Malay patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 216 controls, using PCR-RFLP.
The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes, evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in European-Zebu composite beef heifers from six different breed compositions. The polymorphism site analysis from digestion with HhaI and AluI restriction endonucleases allowed the genotype identification for LHR (TT, CT and CC) and FSHR (GG, CG and CC) genes.
The aim of the present study was to identify polymorphisms in the leptin gene of 112 pigs and compare the maternal and paternal lineage of Pietrain and Large White breeds that underwent a divergent selection for over 30 years. DNA samples extracted from the blood of these animals were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism using the restriction enzyme HinfI. The data were statistically analyzed by the chi-square test.