The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability and performance of 4 methods of extracting DNA from Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) and the gene encoding bovine mitochondrial cytochrome B (BMCB) in milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis for use in amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Two milk samples were obtained from cows naturally infected with S. aureus and subjected to the following extraction methods: Qiagen DNA extraction kit; Axyprep DNA extraction kit; in silica column boil and in silica column method.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction
The expression of retinoid-acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) was evaluated at the mRNA level using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and its expression localization was determined by in situ hybridization of adult Inner Mongolian cashmere goats at different times of the year. In situ hybridization demonstrated that RORαwas expressed in secondary hair follicles of the hair shaft, inner root sheath, outer root sheath, medulla, and other parts that are target organs of the RORαreceptor gene.
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transports peptides from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum for subsequent loading onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This study showed the dynamic changes in the TAP1 expression level in newborn to weaning piglets.
The bovine tick Rhipicephalus microplus is responsible for severe economic losses in tropical cattle production. Bos indicus breeds are more resistant to tick infestations than are Bos taurus breeds, and the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in this difference is important for the development of new methods of parasite control. We evaluated differences in the transcript expression of genes related to the immune response in the peripheral blood of cattle previously characterized as resistant or susceptible to tick infestation.
Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by the presence of one full X chromosome and total or partial deletion of the second sex chromosome. Diagnosis of TS is often delayed, resulting in inappropriate treatment. Early diagnosis of TS using a neonatal screening test may improve preventive measures and treatment, thus improving patient quality of life. The goal of this study was to standardize a neonatal TS screening algorithm. Two study genes (ARSE and MAGEH1) and 1 normalizing gene (HBB) were used to detect the second X chromosome.
Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional intracellular calcium ion receptor protein that participates in a range of cellular processes, including calcium metabolism in mussels. To investigate the role of CaM in freshwater mollusk shell calcium metabolism, the full-length CaM cDNA was isolated from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii (referred to as hsCaM) using SMART RACE technology.
Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent oral diseases. An association between this disease and pregnancy has been suggested, but available findings are controversial. We evaluated the expression levels of interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pregnant women with and without periodontal disease in comparison with non-pregnant women with and without periodontal disease since studies have suggested a relationship between periodontitis and the expression levels of these genes.
One of the limitations in the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). A well-known mechanism responsible for drug resistance is over-expression of ABC-transporter genes such as MDR1. This gene encodes p-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transmembrane glycoprotein that transports many hydrophobic substrates and anti-cancer drugs out of the cell. MDR1 gene polymorphisms could alter the expression level of P-gp and consequently result in drug resistance.
Cadherins are cell-to-cell adhesion molecules that play an important role in the establishment of adherent-type junctions by mediating calcium-dependent cellular interactions. The CDH1 gene encodes the transmembrane glycoprotein E-cadherin which is important in maintaining homophilic cell-cell adhesion in epithelial tissues. E-cadherin interacts with catenin proteins to maintain tissue architecture. Structural defects or loss of expression of E-cadherin have been reported as a common feature in several human cancer types.