We performed a 1-year cluster-randomized field trial to assess the effect of standardized management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on lung function and quality of life (QOL) measures in patients in China. We used the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment guidelines and assessed indexes including pulmonary function, QOL, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, 6-min walk distance (6-MWD), number of emergency visits, and frequency of hospitalization.
Quality of life
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common genetic cause of male infertility. Widespread development in assisted reproductive technology has provided non-mosaic KS patients with the opportunity of having biological children. Testosterone replacement therapy and micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction are effective sperm retrieval techniques for KS patients. Despite the success of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), some areas of early aggressive hormonal spermatogenesis and appropriate management of KS remain controversial.