The phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) gene was differentially expressed in tissues of Chinese Meishan and Large White pigs. In this study, the promoter region, expression profile, and genetic mutations of the gene were determined. Expression of a 5'-deletion in both C2C12 and PK-15 cells showed that a negative regulatory element was at -1871 to +185 bp and a positive regulatory element was at -1158 to +185 bp. Among the different types of muscle fibers, PGM1 had the highest expression in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris.
In Petunia x hybrida ‘Fantasy Red’, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene referred to as PhLRR, was identified in a flower bud cDNA library. The open reading frame sequence of PhLRR was 1251 bp, encoding a putative 46.2-kDa protein of 416 amino acids. The PhLRR protein showed high similarity to members of polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs), contained 11 conserved LRR domains, and was an extracellular localization protein.
A synergistic effect in the somatotropic axis (GH1-GHR-IGF1) was observed in 736 young Nelore (Bos indicus) bulls under ad libitum grass feeding conditions on irrigated pasture in central Brazil. Stepwise substitution of shorter alleles of the promoter region of the growth hormone gene (GH1) and the P1 promoter of the GH1 receptor gene (GHR) with longer alleles was associated with significantly increased body weight gain (W550, weight at age 550 days; ADG, average daily gain) and fat accrual (FAT, rib eye fat thickness).
With-no-lysine (K) kinase-4 (WNK4) is a newly cloned kinase-encoding gene that plays a crucial role in the maintenance of electrolyte homeostasis. Mutations of WNK4 can cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type α, an autosomal dominant disease characterized by hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis and hypertension. We explored the expression and regulatory mechanism of WNK4 in the human kidneys, which is a key regulator of blood pressure. Expression of WNK4 was determined by RT-PCR.
Regulation of human olfactory receptor (hOR) genes is a complex process of control and signalization with various structures and functions that are not clearly understood. To date, nearly 390 functional hOR genes and 462 pseudogenes have been discovered in the human genome. Enhancer models and trans-acting elements for the regulation of different hOR genes are among the few examples of our knowledge concerning regulation of these genes. We looked for upstream control elements that might help explain these complex control mechanisms.