Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by the lack of expression of genes located on paternal chromosome 15q11-q13. This lack of gene expression may be due to a deletion in this chromosomal segment, to maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, or to a defect in the imprinting center on 15q11-q13. PWS is characterized by hypotonia during the neonatal stage and in childhood, accompanied by a delay in neuropsychomotor development. Overeating, obesity, and mental deficiency arise later on.
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystemic disorder caused by the loss of expression of paternally transcribed genes in the PWS critical region of chromosome 15. Various molecular mechanisms are known to lead to PWS: deletion 15q11-q13 (75% of cases), maternal uniparental disomy (matUPD15) (23%) and imprinting defects (2%). FISH and microsatellite analysis are required to establish the molecular etiology, which is essential for appropriate genetic counseling and care management.