Population genetics

Allele frequencies for 12 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in two bolivian populations

L. Cifuentes, Jorquera, H., Acuña, M., Ordóñez, J., and Sierra, A. L., Allele frequencies for 12 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in two bolivian populations, vol. 7, pp. 271-275, 2008.

Two hundred and sixty unrelated subjects who asked for paternity testing at two Bolivian Laboratories in La Paz and Santa Cruz were studied. The loci D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, TH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO were typed from blood samples, amplifying DNA by polymerase chain reactions and electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were estimated by simple counting and the unbiased heterozygosity was calculated. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was studied and gene frequencies were compared between the two samples.

Phylogenetic inheritance of genetic variability produced by neutral models of evolution

J. José, Puma-Villanueva, W. J., Von Zuben, F. J., and Diniz-Filho, J. A. F., Phylogenetic inheritance of genetic variability produced by neutral models of evolution, vol. 7, pp. 1327-1343, 2008.

The amount of genetic variability in species and populations has been mainly related to microevolutionary forces operating in natural populations and the influence of phylogenetic processes for the distribution of genetic variability has been neglected. To investigate how the current genetic variability distribution depends on the genetic variability of ancestral species, we simulated the evolution of heterozygosity on a pre-determined phylogeny under three neutral models of evolution: genetic drift, drift vs mutation and drift vs migration.

Reduced levels of genetic variation in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, based on analysis of the mitochondrial DNA ND5 gene

R. T. Maia, Scarpassa, V. M., Maciel-Litaiff, L. H., and Tadei, W. P., Reduced levels of genetic variation in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, based on analysis of the mitochondrial DNA ND5 gene, vol. 8, pp. 998-1007, 2009.

Aedes albopictus, a mosquito originally from Southeast Asia, is considered to be one of the main vectors of dengue fever, yel­low fever and other arboviruses. We examined the genetic variability and population structure of 68 individuals of Ae. albopictus collected from five neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, based on the mitochon­drial gene coding for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5).

A genomic parasite in the evolution of metazoan development

H. F. Hoenigsberg and Sanabria, C., A genomic parasite in the evolution of metazoan development, vol. 8. pp. 896-914, 2009.

It is a challenge to understand how development emerged as a mechanism to dismantle and dismiss the intromission of foreign parasites in order to consolidate a higher-level multicellular unit of selection where more heritable variations in fitness, required for complex organization, can be procured. Levels in biological hierarchy genes, networks of genes, chromosomes, cells, organisms, etc., possess heritable variations in fitness to varying degrees, and as such, they function as units of selection in the evolutionary process [Lewontin, (1970). The units of selection. Annu.

Molecular characterization of wheat germplasm using microsatellite markers

S. Ijaz and Khan, I. A., Molecular characterization of wheat germplasm using microsatellite markers, vol. 8, pp. 809-815, 2009.

We investigated the genetic diversity of 63 wheat genotypes, composed of 48 accessions and 15 varieties, using 56 polymorphic simple sequence repeat primers. One hundred and eighty-six loci were found, with a mean of 131.26 alleles per locus. Cluster analysis based on microsatellite allelic diversity discrimi­nated the accessions and varieties into different clusters; genetic di­versity was the highest between variety Kohistan-97 and accession number 011512, giving a genetic similarity value of 0.4198.

Temporal genetic differentiation in cultured and natural beds of the brown mussel Perna perna (Mytilidae)

K. T. Appio and Weber, L. I., Temporal genetic differentiation in cultured and natural beds of the brown mussel Perna perna (Mytilidae), vol. 6, pp. 127-136, 2007.

Perna perna is the most important cultivated mussel of Santa Catarina, Brazil, sustaining an important economic input for many local families. Natural stocks of P. perna are depleted by the extraction of adults and seeds for consumption and culture. The aim of the present study was to use the microsatellite locus pms-2 to study the variation of the genetic composition and diversity between natural and cultured stocks in samples of 2001 and 2005 from Penha, Santa Catarina.

Genetic variability in maned wolf based on heterologous short-tandem repeat markers from domestic dog

D. C. Salim, Akimoto, A. A., Carvalho, C. B., Oliveira, S. F., Grisolia, C. K., Moreira, J. R., and Klautau-Guimarães, M. N., Genetic variability in maned wolf based on heterologous short-tandem repeat markers from domestic dog, vol. 6, pp. 348-357, 2007.

The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest South American canid. Habitat loss and fragmentation, due to agricultural expansion and predatory hunting, are the main threats to this species. It is included in the official list of threatened wildlife species in Brazil, and is also protected by IUCN and CITES.

Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora toltecum (Diptera: Culicidae) Colombian populations cannot be differentiated by isoenzymes

M. Ruiz-Garcia, Ramirez, D., Bello, F., and Alvarez, D., Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora toltecum (Diptera: Culicidae) Colombian populations cannot be differentiated by isoenzymes, vol. 2, pp. 229-259, 2003.

Two populations of the mosquito Psorophora columbiae from the central Andean area of Colombia and one population of Ps. toltecum from the Atlantic coast of Colombia were analyzed for 11 isoenzyme markers. Psorophora columbiae and Ps. toltecum are two of the main vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis. We found no conspicuous genetic differences between the two species. The relatively high gene flow levels among these populations indicate that these are not two different species or that there has been recent divergence between these taxa.

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