Neuroblastoma is the most common and one of the deadliest among pediatric tumors; however, a subset of infants with neuroblastoma display spontaneous regression. The mechanism of spontaneous regression remains to be elucidated. TrkA plays an essential role in the differentiation and functionality of neurons; abundant TrkA expression is associated with favorable prognosis of neuroblastoma. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a first-line drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment, has been shown to induce differentiation and inhibit cell growth.
The aim of this study was to establish a metastatic human neuroblastoma (NB) mouse model by xenograft in order to study the metastatic mechanisms of NB. A human NB cell line was obtained from a 5-year-old patient and cultured in vitro. A suspension of these cells was subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice at the right flank next to the forelimb. The biological characteristics of the developed subcutaneous and metastatic tumors were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial contaminant and is reported to be a risk factor associated with the development of tumors. In our previous studies, we have shown that BPA promoted the growth of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells and increased their invasion and metastasis. In this study, we further investigated the effects of BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2) on the stem cell-like cells from SK-N-SH cells.