Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been shown to play important roles in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, genes encoding mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) are hotspots for pathogenic mutations associated with HCC. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported the involvement of such mutations in this disease. As a result, several mt-tRNA mutations associated with HCC have been described. Some of these are neutral polymorphisms and may not cause mitochondrial dysfunction.
Mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but no large-scale research have examined the BRCA1/2 mutations in Chinese Kazakh women. We evaluated the frequency and distributions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in Kazakh sporadic breast cancer patients and healthy women in China. The association between the clinical-pathologic features of Kazakh breast cancer patients and BRCA1/2 mutations were also investigated.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by bone deformities and fractures. Most cases are caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the type I collagen genes COL1A1 and COL1A2; however, an increasing number of recessive mutations in other genes have been reported. The LEPRE1, CRTAP, and PPIB genes encode proteins that form the P3H1/CRTAP/CypB complex, which is responsible for posttranslational modifications of type I collagen.
We determined whether a child with 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency possessed the sex-determining region (SRY) gene, and examined the mutations present in the CYP17A1 gene that led to 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency. In the child, karyotype analysis was performed and polymerase chain reaction analysis and electrophoretic techniques were used to identify the SRY gene. A total of 50 normal individuals were included as a control group. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to identify CYP17A1 gene mutations in all samples.