Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men. The multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) is an important candidate gene for prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer. MDR1 gene polymorphism and its association with the risk of prostate cancer were investigated in 357 Chinese men. A novel c.1465C>T polymorphism was detected with created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing.