The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays an important role in the steps involved in the processing of amino acids. The analysis of polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene has revealed associations with cancer; in particular the C677T polymorphism, which has been suggested to affect folate metabolism, DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair, and to contribute to tumor promotion in the mammary gland.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by enhanced expression and activity of several metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP13 and MMP7, which play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The objective of this study was to analyze the association of functional MMP7-181A/G and MMP13-77A/G promoter polymorphisms with susceptibility to CRC in a Mexican population. Genomic DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood of 102 CRC patients and 125 blood donors who were included as the control group.
The TP53 tumor suppressor gene plays an important role in cell cycle regulation; polymorphisms of this gene have been associated with endometriosis. We examined the role of TP53 codon 72 polymorphism by comparing genotypes of 235 healthy Mexican women (controls with surgically excluded endometriosis) with the genotypes of 151 Mexican women with endometriosis. The observed genotype frequencies for controls and endometriosis patients were 8 and 22% for proline/proline (Pro/Pro), 30 and 34% for proline/arginine (Pro/Arg), and 62 and 44% for arginine/arginine (Arg/Arg), respectively.
DNA repair proteins maintain DNA integrity; polymorphisms in genes coding for these proteins can increase susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We analyzed a possible association of MLH1 -93G>A and 655A>G and XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms with CRC in Mexican patients. Genomic DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood of 108 individuals with CRC (study group) at diagnosis and 120 blood donors (control group) from Western Mexico; both groups were mestizos. The polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP.
The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. Polymorphisms of TNF-α have been associated with cancer. We examined the role of the -308G>A polymorphism in this gene by comparing the genotypes of 294 healthy Mexican women with those of 465 Mexican women with breast cancer. The observed genotype frequencies for controls and breast cancer patients were 1 and 14% for AA, 13 and 21% for GA, and 86 and 65% for GG, respectively.