Changes in the expression of the protein disulfide isomerase genes PDIA3 and PDIA6 may increase endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to cellular instability and neoplasia. We evaluated the expression of PDIA3 and PDIA6 in invasive ductal carcinomas. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the mRNA expression level in 45 samples of invasive ductal carcinoma with that in normal breast samples. Increased expression of the PDIA3 gene in carcinomas (P = 0.0009) was observed.
The purpose of this study was to identify specific biomarkers for recurrence or metastasis of esophageal carcinoma in serum of patients subjected to esophagectomy. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) combined with IMAC-Cu2+ ProteinChip array were performed for the serum protein profiling in patients after surgical resection of esophageal carcinoma. Two groups of patients were analyzed: 38 patients without recurrence or metastasis (Group 1) and 22 patients with recurrence or metastasis after resection (Group 2).
This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of lymph node (LN) metastases from thoracic esophageal carcinoma near the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the influence of these metastases on patient prognosis and to determine the reasonable regional LN dissection range. The clinical data from 120 patients who underwent resection for thoracic esophageal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.
Metastatic tumors in the paranasal sinuses are very rare. The origin of metastatic tumors in the paranasal sinuses is often renal cancer. Renal cell carcinomas are known for their tendency for early metastasis, and symptoms due to the metastatic lesion may be the only initial manifestation. In this paper, we deal with the case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented with a mass in the left maxillary region. The presence of a primary renal cell carcinoma was recognized only after surgical removal of the metastatic tumor.
We examined the expression of ezrin and moesin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and their correlation with patient clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for ezrin and moesin were applied to 60 carcinoma tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and 33 metastatic lymph nodes. Survival functions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test.
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism in regulating the expression of genes controlling crucial cell functions in cancer development. Gene silencing via CpG island methylation/demethylation in the promoter region is one of the mechanisms by which different genes are inactivated/activated in human cancers. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) is known to antagonize matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and to suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
Breast cancer is the second most common origin of brain metastases, after lung cancer, and represents 14-20% of all cases. Abnormalities of chromosome 17 are important molecular genetic events in human breast cancer, and several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are located on this chromosome. In about half of all human cancers, the tumor suppressor gene TP53, located at 17p13.1, is either lost or mutated.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths amongst women in the USA. The tumor microenvironment has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of cancers. The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate, as part of the cellular microenvironment, consists of long linear chains of repeating disaccharide units, which are covalently attached to core proteins to form chondroitin sulfate-proteoglycans.