Maize

Effects of using phenotypic means and genotypic values in GGE biplot analyses on genotype by environment studies on tropical maize (Zea mays)

I. S. C. Granato, Fritsche-Neto, R., Resende, M. D. V., Silva, F. F., Granato, I. S. C., Fritsche-Neto, R., Resende, M. D. V., and Silva, F. F., Effects of using phenotypic means and genotypic values in GGE biplot analyses on genotype by environment studies on tropical maize (Zea mays), vol. 15, p. -, 2016.

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the type and intensity of nutritional stress, and of the statistical treatment of the data, on the genotype x environment (G x E) interaction for tropical maize (Zea mays). For this purpose, 39 hybrid combinations were evaluated under low- and high-nitrogen and -phosphorus availability. The plants were harvested at the V6 stage, and the shoot dry mass was estimated.

Genetic analysis of water-deficit response traits in maize

M. Ahmad, Saleem, M., Ahsan, M., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, M., Saleem, M., Ahsan, M., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, M., Saleem, M., Ahsan, M., and Ahmad, A., Genetic analysis of water-deficit response traits in maize, vol. 15, p. -, 2016.

A set of sixty inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were screened in the greenhouse at the seedling stage under both normal and water-deficit conditions. Six water deficit-tolerant inbred lines were selected based on root to shoot ratios. These selected lines were crossed in a diallel pattern. The parental, F1, and reciprocal cross plants were planted in a field under both normal and water-deficit conditions. Normal irrigation was applied to the control set, while the water-deficit set received 50% of normal irrigation levels.

Detection of quantitative trait loci for ear row number in F2 populations of maize

C. Yang, Liu, J., and Rong, T. Z., Detection of quantitative trait loci for ear row number in F2 populations of maize, vol. 14, pp. 14229-14238, 2015.

Ear row number (ERN) is not only a key trait involved in maize (Zea mays L.) evolution but is also an important component that is directly related to grain yield. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ERN were detected across two F2 populations that were derived from a same cross between B73 with 16 rows (N = 233) and SICAU1212 with four rows (N = 231). As a result, 33 QTLs were associated with 12 agronomic traits: three plant traits, four ear-related traits, and five kernel-related traits.

Meta-analysis of constitutive QTLs for disease resistance in maize and its synteny conservation in the rice genome

L. Zhao, Liu, H. J., Zhang, C. X., Wang, Q. Y., and Li, X. H., Meta-analysis of constitutive QTLs for disease resistance in maize and its synteny conservation in the rice genome, vol. 14, pp. 961-970, 2015.

We collected data regarding 340 disease resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the maize genomic database (MaizeGDB). We constructed an integrated linkage map and analyzed this map by using the BioMercator 2.1 software with IBM2 2008 Neighbors genetic linkage map as a reference. We used a meta-analysis method to identify five “consensus” synthetic resistance QTLs located on maize chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 10, with map intervals of 5.14, 9.00, 28.50, 1.73, and 33.34 cM, respectively.

Influence of sugars and hormones on the genes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize endosperms

X. D. Ren, Liu, H. M., Liu, Y. H., Hu, Y. F., Zhang, J. J., and Huang, Y. B., Influence of sugars and hormones on the genes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize endosperms, vol. 14, pp. 1671-1678, 2015.

Starch is the major storage product in the endosperm of cereals. Its synthesis is closely related to sucrose metabolism. In our previous study, we found that the expression of most of the genes involved in starch synthesis might be regulated by sugars and hormones in the maize endosperm. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism.

Cloning and functional analysis of the promoter of a maize starch synthase III gene (ZmDULL1)

J. D. Wu, Jiang, C. P., Zhu, H. S., Jiang, H. Y., Cheng, B. J., and Zhu, S. W., Cloning and functional analysis of the promoter of a maize starch synthase III gene (ZmDULL1), vol. 14, pp. 5468-5479, 2015.

The ZmDULL1 gene encodes a starch synthase and is a determinant of the structure of endosperm starch in maize (Zea mays L.). However, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of the ZmDULL1 gene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the ZmDULL1 promoter (PDULL1), which is the 5' flanking region of ZmDULL1 in maize. Sequence analysis showed that several cis-acting elements important for endosperm expression (GCN4_motif and AACA-element) were located within the promoter.

Screening relevant genes of tolerance to low phosphorus in maize using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism

H. Y. Jiang, Li, Z., Zhao, J., Ma, Q., Cheng, B. J., and Zhu, S. W., Screening relevant genes of tolerance to low phosphorus in maize using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism, vol. 14, pp. 5731-5741, 2015.

Soil contains a large amount of phosphorus, but plants cannot absorb most of this phosphorus effectively. Low inorganic phosphorus has been singled out as a major constraint that leads to a perpetually low Zea mays (maize) grain yield. The fundamental approach to solving this problem is to screen new genes of low phosphorous (LP) tolerance. Consequently, the exploration and utilization of LP-tolerant genes are of great significance in plants. The maize inbred line 178 is an inbred LP-tolerant line.

Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples

S. Meriç, Çakır, Ö., Turgut-Kara, N., and Arı, Ş., Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples, vol. 13, pp. 1160-1168, 2014.

Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination.

Analysis of DNA methylation patterns and levels in maize hybrids and their parents

T. J. Liu, Sun, L. F., Shan, X. H., Wu, Y., Su, S. Z., Li, S. P., Liu, H. K., Han, J. Y., and Yuan, Y. P., Analysis of DNA methylation patterns and levels in maize hybrids and their parents, vol. 13, pp. 8458-8468, 2014.

Heterosis is the superior performance of heterozygous individuals and has been widely exploited in plant breeding, although the underlying regulatory mechanisms still remain largely elusive. To understand the molecular basis of heterosis in maize, in this study, roots and leaves at the seedling stage and embryos and endosperm tissues 15 days after fertilization of 2 elite hybrids and their parental lines were used to estimate the levels and patterns of cytosine methylation by the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism method.

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