Survival in host phagocytes is an effective strategy for pathogenic microbes to spread. To understand the mechanisms of Aeromonas hydrophila survival within host macrophages, a library of mini-Tn10 transposon insertion mutants was constructed. The M85 mutant, whose survival in host macrophages was only 23.1% of that of the wild-type (WT) strain, was utilized for further study. Molecular analysis showed that a 756-bp open reading frame (ORF) (GenBank accession No. CP007576) in the M85 mutant was interrupted by mini-Tn10.
This study aims to investigate the effects of andrographolide (AGP) on osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The effects of AGP on cell viability were determined in RAW 264.7 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of AGP on osteoclast formation were tested by osteoclast staining with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP).