The gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) belongs to a neuropeptide family synthesized and released in an X-organ sinus gland complex of crustacean eyestalks. GIH inhibits crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis, whereas estrogen is responsible for the stimulation of vitellogenesis (not established).
The Rab protein family belongs to a superfamily of ras-like GTP-binding proteins. Rab proteins regulate many steps of membrane trafficking. In this study, three Rab family members, Rab5B, Rab6A, and Rab7, designated LvRab5B, LvRab6A, and LvRab7, were cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. The full-length cDNA sequences of LvRab5B, LvRab6A, and LvRab7 were 1383, 873, and 767 nucleotides in length and they encoded proteins of 211, 212, and 205 amino acids, respectively. Using qRT-PCR, the mRNA expression levels of the three proteins were determined in the hepatopancreas of L.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an important role in regulating both adaptive and innate immunity. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most widely farmed crustacean species in the world. However, little is known about the role miRNAs play in shrimp immunity. To understand the impact of viral infection on miRNA expression in shrimp, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from L. vannamei under normal and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenged conditions.
The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important proinflammatory cytokine that mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we identified a homolog of MIF in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The MIF cDNA contained a 363-bp open reading frame encoding a 120-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 13.442 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.57. The L. vannamei MIF shared high amino acid identity with MIFs of other invertebrates.
The Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae) is one of the most important cultivated species in world aquaculture. In Brazil, the northeastern states are home to the main shrimp producers. As shrimp aquaculture has expanded and intensified, diseases have progressively become one of the most serious threats to this industry. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is an enzootic viral agent in Brazilian shrimp farms. Its is usually diagnosed by histological methods.
Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel is a large protein that plays an essential role in muscle contraction; mutations in the ryanodine receptor gene affect sensitivity to stress. As a first step towards investigating the relationship between the ryanodine receptor and shrimp cramped muscle syndrome, we cloned, partially sequenced, and examined single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ryanodine receptor gene of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The nucleotide sequence of a 15.06-kb L.