The objective of this study was to verify whether Toxoplasma gondii is excreted in the milk of naturally infected sheep. In order to accomplish this, 275 lactating ewes were used; these were bred extensively in 17 estates distributed across nine cities. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect T. gondii DNA in milk samples, and the indirect immunofluorescence test was employed for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in the sera, with a cut-off value of 1:64.
Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g.
Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is produced by mucosal epithelial cells in mammals. Lf has non-immune natural defense functions and biological functions in addition to and distinct from its role in regulating inflammatory responses. Lf also improved some physiological and immunological parameters. Lf is a biomarker for monitoring medical treatment in inflammatory bowel diseases. Current LF research focuses on iron absorption, antimicrobial activity, and the modulation of iron metabolism during inflammation.
Interkeukin-8 (IL-8) is an important inflammatory mediator. It is an angiogenic factor associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis. To date, research on IL-8 has been limited to its role as an indicator of inflammation. There has been no systematic research concerning IL-8 expression levels in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. Mouse mammary gland samples were collected on days 1, 6, 12, 18 of pregnancy and of lactation (6 mice per group). The expression levels of IL-8 mRNA were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, with GAPDH as an internal control.
Obtaining quantitative data concerning gene expression is important for understanding milk synthesis in mammary glands. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an efficient tool to calculate gene expression; however, it is necessary to find valid reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data. We applied the geNorm software to eight commonly used reference genes to identify the most stable and optimal genes for the mouse mammary gland. Based on this analysis, HPRT, RPL and GAPDH are the most appropriate reference genes for data normalization.
The functions of distinct isoforms of solute carrier family 27 transporters (SLC27A1-6), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, ACACB), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1-4), fatty acid desaturase (FADS1-3), LPIN (LPIN1-3), insulin-induced gene (INSIG1, 2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator1 (PPARGC1A, B) were studied in the mouse mammary gland from pregnancy to lactation. The relative mRNA abundance and percent change in real-time PCR were determined.
We compared levels of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) mRNA expression in mouse medulla at different stages of pregnancy and lactation. Mouse medulla samples were collected on days 6, 12 and 18 of pregnancy and lactation, respectively (six per group), for mRNA. Expression levels of PrRP mRNA in the medulla were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a control. PrRP mRNA was highly expressed in mouse medulla oblongata on day 6 of pregnancy (0.53), followed by 0.43 at lactation day 6, and 0.42 at lactation day 12.
Leptin is expressed in various tissues, suggesting that this protein is effective not only at the central nervous system level, but also peripherically. Recent studies have shown leptin production by other tissues, including the placenta, stomach, and mammary tissues, but there is no information available concerning expression levels of leptin in the rat mammary gland at different activation stages. We used semi-quantitative RT-PCR to investigate leptin mRNA expression levels in the rat mammary gland at different activity stages.