To detect EeSt-genome species in Pseudoroegneria and Elytrigia, the primers ES45 (5'-GTAGGCGACGGTTTTCA-3') and ES261 (5'-TCGCTACGTTCTTCATC-3') were designed as sequence characterized amplified region markers based on the 6-base pair indel in internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions and conserved sites in the 5.8S regions, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction of ITS fragments in 27 Triticeae accessions was used for amplification with a touchdown thermocycling profile. Two amplicons were purified, sequenced, and aligned.
Brazil is a major producer and exporter of beef, with a herd of approximately 210 million animals. For the meat industry, a reliable animal traceback from its origin to the consumer market is paramount. Of all available identification systems, DNA is the only one that survives the slaughterhouse and reaches the dish of the consumer. DNA polymorphisms are already used for cattle traceback, but primarily for the subspecies Bos taurus taurus. However, in Brazil, another subspecies, B. taurus indicus predominates.
In this study, a total of 1047 insertion-deletion (InDel) primer pairs distributed across the rice genome were developed and experimentally validated. The primer pairs were designed based on the InDel length polymorphisms between 93-11 (Oryza sativa ssp indica cv.) and Nipponbare (Oryza sativa ssp japonica cv.), aiming for utilization between indica and japonica rice, or between other inter-subspecific rice cultivars.