Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), also known as type 5 acid phosphatases, are widely present in animals, plants, and fungi. In mammal, PAP was reported to participate in immune defense and bone resorption. In this study, the characteristics and potential functions of a PAP gene from pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (pm-PAP) were examined. The Pm-PAP cDNA was found to be 2777 base pairs, containing a 1581-base pair open reading fragment encoding for 526 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 60.1 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 5.82.
To investigate the effect of ammonia (NH3) and humidity on the immune response of broilers, broilers were exposed to 30 or 70 mg/kg atmospheric NH3 for 21 days. Additionally, birds were exposed to 35, 60, and 85% relative humidity (RH). The relative weights of lymphoid organs, serum total protein, serum globulin, serum albumin, serum lysozyme, proliferation index of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and splenic cytokine gene expression were determined.
The intestinal microflora affects inflammation and immunity, not only locally at the mucosal level but also systemically, raising the question of whether the microflora affects inflammatory processes that contribute to cancer and its therapy. Prebiotics have also been found to play an antitumor role that is not limited to the gut. We investigated the antitumor roles of the intestinal microbiota using the Lewis lung cancer mouse model.
We investigated the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) at the molecular level and assessed the therapeutic potential of folic acid (FA) in DM. We downloaded the gene expression profile of the EPCs from T1DM patients before and after treatment with FA and from healthy controls. We identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the EPCs from T1DM patients before and after a four-week period of FA treatment and compared them with those obtained from the healthy subjects by using limma package in R language.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), of which big defensins are examples, are an important component of the natural defenses of most living organisms, and possess remarkable microbicidal activities. In the present study, using expressed-sequence tag sequences from a cDNA library and RACE, the full-length cDNA sequence of the big defensin gene from the triangle-shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii, (HcBD), was cloned.
We investigated the immune response effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) on cells inoculated with pseudorabies attenuated vaccine (PRV). Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of the regulatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ in pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells, after in vitro single vaccination and co-inoculation with PCV2 and the PRV. We found that PRV causes upregulation of IL-4, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ mRNA expression, while PCV2 causes mRNA upregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12p40.
The blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, is a widely consumed clam in the Indo-Pacific region. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine. We identified the GS of T. granosa (Tg-GS) from hemocytes by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA consisted of 1762 bp, with a 1104-bp open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids.
Hemoglobin (Hb) is the major protein component of erythrocytes in animals with red blood, although it can serve additional functions beyond the transport of oxygen. The blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) is one of the few mollusks that has Hb, although the structure and function of molluskan Hbs remain unclear. We characterized two unique and highly compartmentalized blood clam hemoglobin genes, Tg-HbIIA and Tg-HbIIB, at the molecular level.
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterial species that specifically affects ovine and goat, is the cause of ovine infectious pleuropneumonia. We cloned, sequenced and analyzed heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (dnaK) gene of M. ovipneumoniae. The full length open reading frame of the M. ovipneumoniae HSP70 gene consists of 1812 nucleotides, with a G+C content of 34.16%, encoding 604 amino acids.
Among the potential public health problems of animal production, infectious-contagious diseases stand out. Mastitis is among the main diseases affecting dairy cattle. One of the most promising options to reduce the problems caused by this disease, besides proper sanitary and management practices, is selective breeding of resistant animals.