Endophyte microorganisms live inside plants without causing them any apparent damage. Recently, endophytic microorganisms have attracted attention because they can produce bioactive compounds of biotechnological interest. The endophytic microorganisms in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Liliaceae) - a species used since antiquity in traditional Chinese medicine - are under scrutiny because they may be responsible for producing the bioactive metabolites associated with the plant. The levels of bioactive metabolites in the rhizomes of P.