Resistance to metronidazole (Mtz) in Helicobacter pylori is a major problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Alterations in Mtz nitroreductase enzymes, such as oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA) and NADPH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA), are the major contributing factors for this resistance. In this study, rdxA and frxA were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed in 34 Mtz-resistant H.
The aim of this study was to examine the expression of macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) in duodenal ulcer epithelial cells and its relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, and to discuss the pathogenic roles of MIF expression and Hp infection in duodenal ulcer. MIF protein and mRNA expression was examined in samples from patients with duodenal ulcer with and without Hp infection (N = 40 each, experimental group), and in normal duodenal bulb mucosal tissue (N = 40, control group) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.