Eleven commercially available PE-labeled anti-human (IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13) and anti-mouse (IL-10, TNF-α) cytokine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were tested for cross-reactivity with cattle, goat, and sheep cytokines. Cross-reactivity was assessed by comparative analysis with the standard reactivity of the target species. Our data demonstrated that anti-human IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A and IL-10 mAbs cross-react with all ruminant species tested.
The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer.
Successful DNA extraction is indispensable for molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR); however, goat sperm DNA extraction is limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate three methods to extract DNA from goat sperm for use in PCR. Eight goat semen pools were used for DNA extraction by using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit, phenol-chloroform, and Chelex-100 methods.
Mutations in the myostatin (MSTN) gene can inactivate its expression and result in a non-functional protein, which leads to dramatic muscularity and a “double-muscling” phenomenon in many species. Using gene sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism methods, polymorphisms of the MSTN gene were investigated as a candidate marker for growth in 288 goats. The results showed 2 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms: DQ167575 g.197G>A and 345A>T.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of small noncoding RNAs that are highly conserved in plants and animals. Many miRNAs are known to mediate a myriad of cell processes, including proliferation and differentiation, via the regulation of some transcription and signaling factors, which are closely related to muscle development and disease. In this study, small RNA cDNA libraries of Boer goats were constructed.
Kisspeptins, the product of the KISS1 gene, play an essential role in the regulation of reproductive functions, acting primarily at the hypothalamic level of the gonadotropic axis. We detected polymorphisms of the goat KISS1 gene in 723 individuals from three goat breeds (Xinong Saanen, Guanzhong, and Boer) by DNA pooling, PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods. We cloned the promoter sequence of this gene and found it to share high similarity with that of the bovine KISS1 promoter. Six TATA boxes were found in the goat KISS1 promoter region.
Milk composition and body measurement traits, influenced by genes and environmental factors, play important roles in value assessments of efficiency and productivity in dairy goats. Lactoferrin (LF), involved in the efficient expression of protein in milk, is also an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue and a potent osteoblast survival factor. Therefore, it is an important candidate gene for milk composition and body measurement trait selection in marker-assisted selection.
We looked for novel genetic variations within the Six6 gene by PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and forced RFLP-PCR and estimated their associations with production traits in 2132 goats of eight indigenous Chinese breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_001104993.1: g.232T>C) within the goat Six6 gene was identified. The frequencies of allele “C” varied from 0.8621 to 1.000, which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotype and allele frequencies were found to be significantly different in the breeds.
Mammalian seminal plasma contains among others, proteins called spermadhesins, which are the major proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. These proteins appear to be involved in capacitation and sperm-egg interaction. Previously, we reported the presence of a protein related to spermadhesins in goat seminal plasma. In the present study, we have further characterized this protein, and we propose ion-exchange chromatography to isolate this seminal protein. Semen was obtained from four adult Saanen bucks. Seminal plasma was pooled, dialyzed against distilled water and freeze-dried.