Germplasm

Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers

Á. M. Vidal, Vieira, L. J., Ferreira, C. F., Souza, F. V. D., Souza, A. S., and Ledo, C. A. S., Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers, vol. 14, pp. 7759-7770, 2015.

Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro.

Application of SCAR markers linked with mungbean yellow mosaic virus disease-resistance gene in Pakistan mungbean germplasm

R. Binyamin, Khan, M. A., Khan, N. A., and Khan, A. I., Application of SCAR markers linked with mungbean yellow mosaic virus disease-resistance gene in Pakistan mungbean germplasm, vol. 14, pp. 2825-2830, 2015.

Mungbean yellow mosaic virus disease (MYMVD) caused by single-stranded DNA begomovirus is the most prominent threat to the mungbean crop in Pakistan. Mungbean genotypes consisting of 127 varieties/lines were screened for MYMVD under natural field conditions. No genotypes were found to be immune or highly resistant against MYMVD. Genotypes showing resistant and tolerant responses in field screening trials were screened using sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers linked with the MYMVD-resistance gene.

Assessment of apple core collections constructed using phenotypic and genotypic data

W. H. Yun, Ban, S. H., Kim, G. H., Kim, J. - H., Kwon, S. I., and Choi, C., Assessment of apple core collections constructed using phenotypic and genotypic data, vol. 14, pp. 6453-6464, 2015.

Several types of information can be used to select core collections, including passport data, agronomic data, and molecular data. However, little is known about the ability of core collections to retain the genetic diversity and structure of the whole collection for characters that were not considered during the selection, particularly when molecular markers are used.

Cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes on HeLa, B16, and MCF-7 cells and normal human fibroblasts

J. O. Melo, Fachin, A. L., Rizo, W. F., Jesus, H. C. R., Arrigoni-Blank, M. F., Alves, P. B., Marins, M. A., França, S. C., and Blank, A. F., Cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes on HeLa, B16, and MCF-7 cells and normal human fibroblasts, vol. 13, pp. 2691-2697, 2014.

This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oils from three genotypes of Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) and investigate the cytotoxic activities of these oils. Essential oils were extracted from the leaves using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and chemical analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector.

Molecular characterization of Anthurium genotypes by using DNA fingerprinting and SPAR markers

J. D. Souza Neto, Soares, T. C. B., Motta, L. B., Cabral, P. D. S., and Silva, J. A., Molecular characterization of Anthurium genotypes by using DNA fingerprinting and SPAR markers, vol. 13, pp. 4766-4775, 2014.

We characterized single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) molecular markers from 20 genotypes of Anthurium andraeanum Lind., including 3 from commercial varieties and 17 from 2 communities in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Twenty-four SPAR, consisting of 7 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 17 inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of 20 Anthurium accessions. The set of SPAR markers generated 288 bands and showed an average polymorphism percentage of 93.39%, ranging from 71.43 to 100%.

Development of a cassava core collection based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers

E. J. Oliveira, Ferreira, C. F., Santos, V. S., and Oliveira, G. A. F., Development of a cassava core collection based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers, vol. 13, pp. 6472-6485, 2014.

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in the largest cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection from Brazil to develop core collections based on the maximization strategy. Subsets with 61, 64, 84, 128, 256, and 384 cassava accessions were selected and named PoHEU, MST64, PoRAN, MST128, MST256, and MST384, respectively. All the 798 alleles identified by 402 SNP markers in the entire collection were captured in all core collections.

Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP

E. J. Oliveira, Santana, F. A., Oliveira, L. A., and Santos, V. S., Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP, vol. 13, pp. 6683-6700, 2014.

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi).

Comparison of a retrotransposon-based marker with microsatellite markers for discriminating accessions of Vitis vinifera

G. C. Sant’Ana, Ferreira, J. L., Rocha, H. S., Borém, A., Pasqual, M., and Cançado, G. M. A., Comparison of a retrotransposon-based marker with microsatellite markers for discriminating accessions of Vitis vinifera, vol. 11, pp. 1507-1525, 2012.

Identification and knowledge concerning genetic diversity are fundamental for efficient management and use of grapevine germplasm. Recently, new types of molecular markers have been developed, such as retrotransposon-based markers. Because of their multilocus pattern, retrotransposon-based markers might be able to differentiate grapevine accessions with just one pair of primers.

Genetic diversity of gabiroba based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and morphological characteristics

E. S. de Assis, Reis, E. Fdos, Pinto, J. F. N., Contim, L. A. S., and Dias, L. A. S., Genetic diversity of gabiroba based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and morphological characteristics, vol. 12, pp. 3500-3509, 2013.

The fragmentation of the original vegetation of the Cerrado biome, caused by the expansion of agricultural areas, mainly in central-west Brazil, calls for an assessment of the native population of this vegetation, especially of the species of interest for domestication and sustainable use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of 140 gabiroba mother plants (Campomanesia spp) and their progenies from 17 locations in Goiás.

Genetic diversity of the Arctic fox using SRAP markers

M. Zhang and Bai, X. J., Genetic diversity of the Arctic fox using SRAP markers, vol. 12, pp. 6176-6183, 2013.

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is a recently developed molecular marker technique that is stable, simple, reliable, and achieves moderate to high numbers of codominant markers. This study is the first to apply SRAP markers in a mammal, namely the Arctic fox. In order to investigate the genetic diversity of the Arctic fox and to provide a reference for use of its germplasm, we analyzed 7 populations of Arctic fox by SRAP.

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