Genotoxicity

Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on oxidation stress in the liver of juvenile GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus

Y. Zheng, Qiu, L. P., Meng, S. L., Fan, L. M., Song, C., Li, D. D., Zhang, C., Chen, J. Z., Zheng, Y., Qiu, L. P., Meng, S. L., Fan, L. M., Song, C., Li, D. D., Zhang, C., and Chen, J. Z., Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on oxidation stress in the liver of juvenile GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus, vol. 15, p. -, 2016.

The present study clearly showed that chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at environmentally relevant concentrations can damage juvenile tilapia livers by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities and gene transcription, which affects toxic bioaccumulation and histological congestion. The results suggest that PCBs caused a decrease in the activity of some hepatic antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes (SOD, CAT, GST, T-GSH, and MDA) in tilapia at 7 days, as well as transcriptional changes (sod, cat, and gst).

Evaluation of the genotoxic activity of dicamba and atrazine herbicides in several Mexican and South American varieties of sweetcorn (Zea mays L.)

M. S. Reynoso, Alvarez, C. M., De la Cruz, L., Escoto, M. D., and Sánchez, J. J. G., Evaluation of the genotoxic activity of dicamba and atrazine herbicides in several Mexican and South American varieties of sweetcorn (Zea mays L.), vol. 14, pp. 16585-16593, 2015.

Corn is a major crop and various herbicides are used to maximize its production, which include a dicamba-atrazine mixture. This has great advantages, but can also induce DNA damage. Genotoxic activity was assessed by comet assay following application of two concentrations of dicamba-atrazine: 1000-2000 and 2000-4000 ppm. Apical meristem leaf nuclei from 119 varieties of sweetcorn plants from Mexico and South America, and from five commercial sweetcorn hybrids were used. Each accession comprised two individuals per concentration and two controls.

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