Babassu (Orbignya phalerata Martius) is one of the most important palms in Brazil because of the largest morphological variation, wide geographic distribution, and high socio-economic importance. The diversity present in babassu germplasm should be protected against loss to ensure their use with high productivity. Study of the available variability in populations of babassu is necessary to develop conservation strategies. The study of genetic variability can be conducted using molecular markers and many of these studies require significant quantity of high-quality DNA.
We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages.
The number of local and traditional fruit cultivars in Andalusia (Southern Spain) has decreased dramatically since the 1970s when new commercial cultivars from breeding programs were introduced, replacing old varieties, and thus decreasing genetic diversity. The present study was included in a genetic resources project with the objective of identifying and preserving traditional fruit tree cultivars in Southern Spain.
Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population.
Olive trees have been grown since the beginning of civilization, and the consumption of olives and olive products is increasing worldwide, due to their health benefits and organoleptic qualities. To meet the growing market for olives, commercial cultivation of this species is expanding from traditional areas to new regions. Although the Brazilian olive industry has just begun to be established, breeding programs are already developing cultivars that are more adapted to local conditions.
Oenocarpus mapora is an Amazonian palm species commonly used by native populations for food and in folk medicine. We measured genetic variability, using RAPD markers, of material kept in a germplasm bank composed of accessions sampled from the Brazilian Amazon. These included 74 individuals from 23 accessions sampled from 9 localities in three States of the Brazilian Amazon. Jaccard genetic similarities were calculated based on 137 polymorphic bands, amplified by 15 primers.
Melon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop in Turkey, where it is grown in many regions; the most widely planted lines are local winter types belonging to the var. inodorous. We examined 81 melon genotypes collected from different provinces of Turkey, compared with 15 reference melon genotypes obtained from INRA/France, to determine genetic diversity among Turkish melons. Twenty polymorphic primers were used to generate the SSR markers. PCR amplification was performed and electrophoresis was conducted. SSR data were used to generate a binary matrix.
The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN).
Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis.
We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morpho-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative, and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found.