This study used esterases and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) markers to determine endophytic variability in order to better understand endophyte-host interactions. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and esterase isoenzymes (EST; EC 220.127.116.11), with α-naphthyl acetate and β-naphthyl acetate as substrates, were used to assess relationships among endophytes. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing data were used as rDNA markers. Thirty-two esterases were obtained from 37 isolates of Saccharum spp, which clustered into five endophyte groups.
Esterase (Est) and esterase-D (Est-D) electrophoretic patterns identified by starch gel electrophoresis of skeletal muscle protein extracts of 184 specimens of three species of peacock bass, locally known as tucunarés (Cichla monoculus, C. temensis and Cichla sp), plus four specimens of a supposed hybrid (C. monoculus vs C. temensis), collected from the Central Amazon, were examined to determine if they could aid in identifying a supposed hybrid between C. monoculus and C. temensis.