The UAS-Gal4 ectopic expression system is a widely used and highly valued tool that allows specific gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Yeast transcription factor Gal4 can be directed using D. melanogaster transcriptional control elements, and is often assumed to have little effect on the organism.
Aiouea trinervis Meisn. is a shrub that grows in the “Cerrado” (a savanna ecosystem) of Brazil. In this study, fractionation of ethanol extracts (EEs) from the leaves of A. trinervis led to the isolation of butanolides, namely isoobtusilactone A and obtusilactone A, as well as lignans, namely sesamin, methylpiperitol, and polyprenol-12. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.
A common physiological response of organisms to environmental conditions is variation in gene expression, especially true for genes encoding for heat shock proteins. In insects, this process has been examined for induced heat or cold stress. The putative long-term imprinted/acquired heat shock protein response due to unfriendly environmental conditions has been far less studied. The Drosophila melanogaster hsp22 gene, which has been extensively reviewed as being sensitive to different changing life conditions, was examined by qRT-PCR, using carboxy-X-rhodamine.
Byrsonima verbascifolia, popularly known in Brazil as murici, is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of bacterial and viral infections, Chagas´s disease, diarrhea, bronchitis, cough and fever, as well as for protection of the intestinal mucosa. Since chemotherapy and radiotherapy, broadly employed in the treatment of cancer, can have undesirable side effects, such as inducing DNA damage in normal cells, it would be useful to investigate compounds that inhibit or reduce these effects.
The Drosophila wing has been used as a model in studies of morphogenesis and evolution; the use of such models can contribute to our understanding of mechanisms that promote morphological divergence among populations and species. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting wing size and shape traits using highly inbred introgression lines between D. simulans and D. sechellia, two sibling species of the melanogaster subgroup. Eighteen QTL peaks that are associated with 12 wing traits were identified, including two principal components.
Luehea divaricata is a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “açoita-cavalo”. It is used as a popular herbal medicine in the treatment of dysentery, bleeding, arthritis, tumors, ulcers, and gangrenous wounds. Considering that herbal medicines sometimes provoke tumors and/or may prevent mutational events, it is important to study the action of these natural drugs on DNA. Aqueous extract of the bark of L.
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is widely used as a reporter transgene in a variety of organisms. Some of the advantages of using GFP include non-invasive visualization of biological events and/or tissues in live specimens and its benign nature. When GFP is expressed throughout the organism, in neurons and eyes, lifespan and climbing ability of flies are significantly decreased compared to similar crosses with a lacZ reporter. Also, GFP expression can have subtle effects on eye morphology, with neural and ubiquitous expression.
The search for new and effective antitumor agents with fewer cytotoxic side effects on normal tissue has increasingly become important. Lapachol, a natural organic compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellandedae), is chemically identified as belonging to the naphthoquinone group and is known for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibiotic properties, although there are questions about its effectiveness for treating neoplasic cells. We evaluated the antitumoral effects of lapachol by testing for clones of epithelial tumors in Drosophila melanogaster.
Caryocar brasiliense Camb. is a tree popularly known in Central Brazil as pequi. Its fruit contains carotenes, retinols, vitamin C, and polyphenols. These compounds possess antioxidant properties preventing excessive free radical formation and modulating the genotoxicity of physical and chemical agents in the body. However, at high concentrations these compounds can have recombinogenic and mutagenic effects, because they can act as pro-oxidants.
Wolbachia are bacteria that live inside the cells of a large number of invertebrate hosts and are transmitted from infected females to their offspring. Their presence is associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility in several species of Drosophila. Cytoplasmic incompatibility results when the sperm of infected males fertilize eggs of uninfected females, causing more or less intense embryonic mortality (unidirectional incompatibility).