Papillomaviruses are known to cause tumor lesions, generally benign, in epithelial tissues of diverse organisms; these lesions may progress to cancer under suitable conditions. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) can cause urinary bladder cancer and cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, BPV1 and BPV2 are implicated in the development of tumors in equids. Many studies with animal models clearly demonstrate that DNA vaccines are very effective tools in controlling viral infections, providing strong humoral and cellular immune responses.
DNA vaccination has been studied intensively as a potential vaccine technology. We evaluated the effect of an attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis-mediated inhibin DNA vaccine in rats. First, 15 rats were treated with different doses of an inhibin vaccine to evaluate vaccine safety. Next, 30 rats were divided into 3 groups and injected intramuscularly with the inhibin vaccine two (T1) or three times (T2) or with control bacteria (Con) at 4-week intervals.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the major pathogen involved in nosocomial infections, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitals worldwide. The methicillin resistance occurs due to the presence of an additional penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a, which has low affinity for b-lactam antibiotics.