Diabetic retinopathy (DR), an important complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is not well understood. T helper cell balance (Th1/Th2) is involved in various autoimmune diseases; however, its role in DR is not understood. This study explores changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression during DR. Blood samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (normal control group), 35 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM group) without DR, and 30 cases of T2DM patients with DR (DR group).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone on inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retinopathy (DR) rats. Male rats (40) weighing 300-360 g were included in this study. Thirty rats were randomly divided into the model and ozone groups after DR was induced by streptozotocin. Ten rats served as the blank group. After the diabetic models were established for one month, the rats in the ozone group were treated with 50 mg/kg ozone coloclysis for one month (three times a week).
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent microvascular complication of diabetes, and one of the most common causes of legal blindness in the world. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) produces an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect against various human diseases. In this study, we determined the effect of EGCG on a human retinal endothelial cell (HREC) line. The cell viability was determined by a standard MTT assay, while the cell cycle and apoptosis rate were analyzed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory marker expression was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of adult blindness. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of DR. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), in an attempt to elucidate the role of these molecules in the etiology of DR. In vitro cultured RGCs were divided into control and high-glucose groups.
We investigated the effect of atorvastatin on vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) expression in rats with diabetic retinopathy. Wistar rats were divided into a blank group and diabetic model group, which was further randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Rats in the treatment group received 10 mg/kg atorvastatin daily, while rats in the blank and control groups received normal saline. Rats were randomly euthanized at 3 or 6 months.
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased, as well as complications including diabetic retinopathy. Polymorphisms in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) have been associated with T2DM, with the strongest association attributed to the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7903146. In this review, we searched the current literature to determine whether an association exists between TCF7L2 polymorphisms rs7903146 with diabetic retinopathy.
Retinoid-X receptor (RXR) is one of the members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. It forms heterodimers with many nuclear receptors, such as the peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor, which has been proposed to be involved in diabetic complications, including retinopathy. A recent study revealed that RXR-alpha has antioxidant properties and is associated with diabetic retinopathy. We found that the RXR-gamma gene is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.