Full-length cDNA of the gene checkpoint homolog 1 (Chk1) was cloned from Daphnia carinata and designated DcarChk1. DcarChk1 cDNA was 1817 bp in length and encoded a 497-amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that DcarChk1 was most closely related to Chk1 of Daphnia pulex, followed by homologous genes of insects. Expression of DcarChk1 was higher in adult Daphnia than in larvae, and significantly higher in males than females, as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.
To better understand the reproductive transformation mechanism of Daphnia carinata, a Doublesex (Dsx) gene was cloned based on rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and was designated DapcaDsx2. Next, we compared similarities and assumed homology based on deduced amino acid sequences. It showed 97.52, 87.94, and 85.11% identity to orthologous genes in D. magna, D. pulex, and D. galeata respectively.