Comparative genomic hybridization
We studied chromosomal abnormalities in arrested embryos produced by assisted reproductive technology with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to determine the best technique for evaluating chromosomal aneusomies to be implemented in different situations. We examined individual blastomeres from arrested embryos by FISH and arrested whole embryos by CGH. All of the 10 FISH-analyzed embryos gave results, while only 7 of the 30 embryos analyzed by CGH were usable.
In DNA microarray experiments, the gene fragments that are spotted on the slides are usually obtained by the synthesis of specific oligonucleotides that are able to amplify genes through PCR. Shotgun library sequences are an alternative to synthesis of primers for the study of each gene in the genome. The possibility of putting thousands of gene sequences into a single slide allows the use of shotgun clones in order to proceed with microarray analysis without a completely sequenced genome.
As the pioneer among molecular cytogenetics techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows identification of specific sequences in a structurally preserved cell, in metaphase or interphase. This technique, based on the complementary double-stranded nature of DNA, hybridizes labeled specific DNA (probe). The probe, bound to the target, will be developed into a fluorescent signal.