Cocoa

Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses

F. Z. Bertolde, Almeida, A. - A. F., Silva, F. A. C., Oliveira, T. M., and Pirovani, C. P., Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses, vol. 13, pp. 5036-5047, 2014.

Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems.

Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

T. F. Santos, Santana, L. K. A., Santos, A. C. F., Silva, G. S., Romano, C. C., Dias, J. C. T., and Rezende, R. P., Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, vol. 10, pp. 2702-2709, 2011.

Cocoa is naturally fermented in the field before the cocoa seeds are removed for processing. We assessed the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa fermentation in Bahia, Brazil. During five days of fermentation, temperature and pH were measured and beans were collected for genomic DNA extraction every 12 h. The DNA was used as a template for amplification with Lac1-Lac2 and Lac3-Lac2 for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. pH values ranged from 3.34 to 4.98, while the temperature varied from 23° to 50°C.

Establishing references for gene expression analyses by RT-qPCR in Theobroma cacao tissues

T. T. Pinheiro, Litholdo, Jr., C. G., Sereno, M. L., Leal, Jr., G. A., Albuquerque, P. S. B., and Figueira, A., Establishing references for gene expression analyses by RT-qPCR in Theobroma cacao tissues, vol. 10, pp. 3291-3305, 2011.

Lack of continuous progress in Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae) breeding, especially associated with seed quality traits, requires more efficient selection methods based on genomic information. Reverse transcript quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become the method of choice for gene expression analysis, but relative expression analysis requires various reference genes, which must be stable across various biological conditions. We sought suitable reference genes for various tissues of cacao, especially developing seeds.

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